The Joe Martin Foundation

Presents the

The Miniature Engineering Museum Collection of Internal Combustion Engines

Courtesy of Paul and Paula Knapp

On display at the Craftsmanship Museum in Carlsbad, California

Also visit Paul Knapp's Miniature Engineering Museum site—"Where engines gather"

Photos: Craig Libuse/Joe Martin Foundation

Paul Knapp and Joe Martin shake hands after Paul delivered the first fifty-one engines from his collection for display at the Vista Craftsmanship Museum. Some of the engines rest on countertops awaiting display in the glass cases. Since then more than 50 more engines have been added to the display. (Click photo to view larger image.)

Paul Knapp is a fine craftsman himself, with a real love for internal combustion engines. He is also a member of the Board of Directors of the Joe Martin Foundation. His wife Paula is also very knowledgeable about the individual engines in the collection and very supportive of Paul's desire to acquire and display a truly impressive collection of the best from around the world. Over the past few years they have put together a collection of over 300 of some of the finest and most significant model engines to be found. As part of Paul's Miniature Engineering Museum, they have been on display at airports and museums throughout the West, and Paul has now decided to display the majority of the collection in the Joe Martin Foundation's Craftsmanship Museum in Carlsbad, CA. The display started with just over 50 engines in 2008 and has now expanded to about 200 engines in 2011. In the future we may rotate some of Paul's other engines through the display, but there will always be plenty to look at here. In the meantime, for those who can't get by the museum to look at these beautiful models first-hand, this page presents a photo of each engine and a little about it so you can tour the exhibit on your own computer.

This Bentley Rotary engine represents the kind of beauty and excellence in craftsmanship the engines in this collection represent. As an additional item of interest on this particular engine, Paul Knapp built it himself—one of two of the models in the display he built personally. Unlike a radial engine that looks similar, on a rotary engine like this, the propeller is actually attached to the engine itself and the entire engine spins with the propeller on a fixed hollow crankshaft that is attached to the airplane. To see a video of an engine just like this one making its first flight powering a model plane see a YouTube video at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dSYp1jFz6_E. (Click on photo to view larger image.)

Shown above are some of the engines in their display cases. The engines fill many expensive glass display cases, and a descriptive card next to each makes a self-guided tour possible, although a museum docent is always on hand to answer questions. The 70" long display cases have been placed on 12" tall risers to make viewing easier for adults. Take your time and enjoy the beautiful details of each engine. Photos documenting each can also be seen below. (Click either photo to view a larger image.) In addition to these engines, the museum also displays over 100 steam, Stirling and other engines by Rudy Kouhoupt and others plus a collection of vintage 2-cycle, 4-cycle, diesel and CO2 model airplane engines.

Engine Videos—See and hear miniature engines in action

We have collected a number of links to videos on the Internet of engines in action. After viewing the engines below, come back and CLICK HERE to visit that page.

Each engine is shown below with a bit of the history behind it and who built it. Click on any of the small thumbnails to see a larger image of the engine. Several views of each engine were photographed while we were doing the studio work, as we felt these engines were worth saving in an appropriate archive for future reference. The engines are displayed in order based on the number that Paul Knapp has assigned them in his collection within the time periods each group was added to the display..

The Miniature Engineering Museum Engine Collection of Paul and Paula Knapp Featured at the Joe Martin Craftsmanship Foundation Museum, Vista, CA

(Click on any photo to enlarge. A U.S. Quarter Dollar coin is placed in each photo for size reference. It is 0.95" or 24.1 mm in diameter.)

Photo (Click to enlarge.)

Engines added to the display on May 1, 2008

(Click on any engine photo to view a larger version.)

02—Edwards 5-Cylinder Radial, designed and built by Forest Edwards, early 1980's, L=12", W=12", H=13"

Forest Edwards builds and flies scale model airplanes and engineers miniature engines.  He has won numerous awards for his scale airplanes, engines and flying skills. In the early 1980s, Edwards designed and developed this 5-cylinder radial engine to power his 1/4-scale Fleet model airplane, based on the 1930 Fleet Biplane. He received many requests to manufacture the engine, so between 1982 and 1994, Edwards produced 30 engines. Many were installed into model airplanes and some are still being flown today.

The 5-cylinder radial burns regular gasoline, incorporates a dry sump lubrication system and produces more than six horsepower. In his last few engines, Edwards added a centrifugal advance in the distributor and a crankshaft-driven supercharger for maximum performance.  Edwards’ engines are completely machined from 7075 aircraft-grade aluminum and are perhaps the most reliable model radial engines built to date.

To see a video of how a radial engine works CLICK HERE. The link is to a YouTube.com video generated in a 3D drawing program called Autodesk Inventor. The cutaway view shows the pistons in action on a 7-cylinder radial engine so you can see how all the internal movements are related.

03—Bentley BR2 Rotary Aero Engine, 1/4 scale model built by Paul Knapp, Arizona, 1993. The model weighs almost 12.5 pounds without stand. L=14", W=12.5", H=14"

Paul Knapp constructed this model with the help of Lew Blackmore's book, Bently BR2 and computer aided design (CAD) drawings by Bill Mazak of Arizona. The engine is machined from stainless steel with aluminum cylinders and heads. The engine burns regular gasoline on spark ignition, has a pressurized lubrication system and a carburetor like its full-size counterpart.

The rotary engines of World War I rotated with the propeller. The hollow crankshaft that extended from the back of the engine was fixed to the airframe and the crankcase was attached to the propeller. Thus, the crankcase and cylinders rotate with the propeller about the stationary crankshaft. The Bentley BR2 was produced in England and was the largest and most powerful rotary engine used in WWI. It powered many airplanes, most of them biplanes.

Paul built four of these engines—two in stainless steel like this one and two of aluminum.. To see a video of one of the aluminum versions power a model airplane called the Gigantic by Robert Cooper with an 12-foot wingspan on its maiden flight, see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dSYp1jFz6_E. This flight purportedly broke two world records on December 4, 2009—the first flight by a 1/4 scale rotary engine and the first flight by a model of a Bentley BR2. Photos show the engine mounted to the firewall, the Gigantic about to land after its first flight and the people involved: (L to R) Mac Hodges (pilot), Ray Williams, Dale Cavin, Robert Cooper and Paul Knapp.

07—Conley Small-Block V8 Engine, designed (1988) by Gary Conley, Illinois, model built by Paul Knapp, Arizona, 1993. L=15", W=7", H=10"

This methanol-burning small-block V8 was built from a casting kit designed by Gary Conley.  It incorporates a fully functional scale 671 blower with dual carburetors.  It will turn approximately 12,000 revolutions per minute at full throttle.

(See YouTube.com at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Is9hcU78gA&feature=PlayList&p=865DCA5FEDB69FB5&index=35 for video of a non-supercharged Conley V8 being run, or see Gary Conley's web site at www.conleyprecision.com.)

10—Cirrus 4-Cylinder Inline Aero Engine, 1/4 scale model built by Merritt Zimmerman, circa 1989, L=19", W=8", H=10"

The 1/4 scale Cirrus 4-cylinder model is one of six made by Merritt Zimmerman. It operates on gasoline with oil mixed in for lubrication. Zimmerman also made 75 1/6-scale-model Cirrus 4-cylinder engines. (One 1/6-scale model also is on display.)

Zimmerman began building miniature engines in the 1940s.  He designed and produced his own castings and also did his own machining. At 83, in less than six weeks, Zimmerman designed, built and tested a 1/4-scale model of the 5-cylinder Kinner radial engine. His engine and drawings were published in 1993 in construction articles in Strictly IC magazine (www.strictlyic.com).

The in-line engine has cylinders in a straight row, or in two rows side-by-side.  The full-size Cirrus 4-cylinder was commonly used in the Avro Baby (designed in 1918) and the de Havilland D.H. 60 Moth (1930-1936).

14—Seidel ST540 5-Cylinder Radial Model Aircraft Engine, designed and built by Wolfgang Seidel, Germany, 1992. L=9", W=8", H=9"

Wolfgang Seidel designed and built several custom radial engines. The ST540, ST770 and ST996 were among the smaller series of radial engines that were used in one-fifth scale and one-fourth scale model aircraft. These engines varied in size from about 8 inches to 11 inches in diameter.

The ST540 is the smaller 5-cylinder 40cc (2.43 cubic inch) radial engine with a speed range of 1,100 to 6,800 revolutions per minute, using a 22-6 propeller. It burns methanol with castor oil mixed in for lubrication, and it is capable of producing 2.8 horsepower.

15—Seidel ST 770 7-Cylinder Radial Model Aircraft Engine, designed and built by Wolfgang Seidel, Germany, 1992, L=10", W=10", H=12"

Wolfgang Seidel designed and built several custom radial engines. The ST540, ST770 and ST996 were among the smaller series of radial engines that were used in one-fifth-scale and one-fourth-scale model aircraft. These engines varied in size from approximately 8 inches to 11 inches in diameter.

The ST770 is a 7-cylinder 70cc (4.17 cubic inch) radial engine with a speed range or 1,000 to 6, 000 revolutions per minute (rpm), using a 26-10 propeller. Its maximum speed is 6300 rpm. It burns methanol with castor oil mixed in for lubrication, and is capable of producing 4.0 horsepower.

16—Seidel ST 996 9-Cylinder Radial Model Aircraft Engine, designed and built by Wolfgang Seidel, Germany, 1993. L=9", W=11", H=13"

Wolfgang Seidel designed and built several custom radial engines.  The ST540, ST770 and ST996 were among the smaller series of radial engines that were used in one-fifth-scale and one-fourth-scale model aircraft. These engines varied in size from approximately 8 inches to 11 inches in diameter.

The ST996 9-cylinder 96cc (5.9 cubic inches) is the largest of the three in this series of engines. It has a speed range of 1,000 to 5,000 revolutions per minute using a 26-10 propeller. It burns methanol with castor oil mixed in for lubrication, and it is capable of producing 5.4 horsepower.

20—Morton M5 Radial Model Aircraft Engine (cutaway), built by Dennis Fadden, Canada, 1990s. L=7", W=6", H=7"

Bruce Satra, of Utah reproduced a Morton M5 engine from 1940s plans and made aluminum castings from the model. Dennis Fadden used Satra’s castings to build this cutaway. Fadden’s M5 has a master-rod that is in the top cylinder with the remaining articulating rods attached to the master. This is a perfect example of how a typical 5-cylinder radial engine operates.

The Morton M5 was originally manufactured in the 1940s and was the first miniature radial engine made for model airplanes. It was designed by Glen Morton of Morton Aviation and was based on the full-size LeBlond radial aircraft engine made in 1928. The radial engine was much more powerful and reliable than the old rotary design. It was used to power large aircraft such as airliners and World War II-era bombers.

34—Cirrus 4-Cylinder In-Line Aero Engine, 1/6-scale model built by Merritt Zimmerman, 1980-1994. L=7", W=3", H=5" 

Merritt Zimmerman produced his own castings to build 75 of this 1/6-scale Cirrus engine (glow ignition) from about 1980 to 1994. He sold many more castings in kit form for miniature engine builders during the same period. To differentiate his engines from those built by others, an oval-shaped embossed emblem with the name Z H Cirrus was bonded to the crankcase identifying those engines completed by him. The oval emblem was not sold or included in any of the kits.

This engine differs from Zimmerman’s prototype in that the cylinders are independent of each other as in the full-size engine. The head is one piece but machined to give the appearance of individual heads characteristic of the full-size engine.  The cam was relocated to the correct side of the engine and the induction system changed to provide lubrication to the internal parts before entering the combustion chamber, typical for a glow-ignition engine.

40—Miniature SJ7 Pulsejet Engine, built by Mike Early, Arizona, circa 1996. L=29", W=13", H=10"

Perhaps the most famous pulsejet engine is the Argus V1 “Buzz Bomb” made by Germans in World War II. Fuel was sprayed directly into the engine through a 3 x 3 array of nine nozzles behind a valve grid—a direct-injection pulsejet. The fuel supply was pressurized by the tank of compressed air that was also used to drive the gyros and operate the control surfaces of the V1 airframe.

This miniature pulsejet engine operates exactly like the V1. It burns regular gasoline and has a variable thrust range from 1/2 to 6 1/2 pounds. Mike Early developed and built the engine, and made the aluminum castings for the intake. He fabricated the combustion chamber and tailpipe from stainless-steel sheet metal. Early produced approximately 12 models from 1996 to 1998.

Anyone who has ever heard a pulsejet run will not forget the sound. It is LOUD, as it is essentially one long controlled explosion.

43—de Havilland Gipsy I 4-Cylinder Inline Engine, 1/4-scale model built by Pat Loop, 1990s. L=8", W=4", H=8", Weight = 9 lb, 2 oz.

Pat Loop handcrafted this miniature Gipsy right down to the spark plugs. It runs on gasoline with spark ignition and a pressurized wet sump lubrication system. Les Chenery provided the castings.

Inline engines have cylinders in a straight row, or in two rows side-by-side. The Gipsy I upright, air-cooled engine was commonly used in the de Havilland 60G and 60M Gipsy Moth and the de Havilland 60T Gipsy Moth trainer. The first de Havilland 60 Moth was built in 1925 as a sports aircraft and a trainer. In 1928, a Gipsy engine was “sealed” and flown for 600 hours.

44—Kinner 5-Cylinder Airplane Engine, 1/4-scale model designed and built by Merritt Zimmerman, Michigan, 1994. L=9", W=11", H=12"

The Kinner Airplane & Motor Corp. of California began building 5-cylinder engines in 1919. The company also built light aircraft from 1931 to 1937. In 1939, the company changed its name to Kinner Motors and produced engines for thousands of World War II training aircraft.

At the age of 83, Merritt Zimmerman designed, drafted, fabricated and tested this scale model within six weeks.

47—Berger 7-Cylinder Radial Model Airplane Engine, designed and built by Lee Berger, California, circa 2001. L=8", W=8", H=9"

This is the first successful 2-cycle radial engine using a common crankshaft with a master rod and articulating rods inside a common crankcase. Since every cylinder of a 2-cycle engine fires on every revolution, an even or odd number of cylinders can be used. In 4-cycle engines, however, each cylinder fires every other revolution, thus requiring an odd number of cylinders.

Two-cycle engines require pressure inside the crankcase to force fuel into the combustion chamber on the intake cycle. In order to accomplish this, Lee Berger designed a positive-pressure pump (supercharger) in the back of the crankcase that maintains constant pressure in the crankcase during operation. A supercharger increases the atmospheric pressure to create more horsepower.

48—Conley V8 Engine, designed and built by Gary Conley, Illinois, 1985. L=8", W=6", H=6"

Gary Conley built several machined V8 engines. He also built a few V4, V6 and V12 models. In 1988-89, he fabricated the molds and patterns to produce a casting kit for his V8 and made it available in several variations. Most commonly, it was supplied with a carburetor, but later versions included multiple carburetors with velocity stacks (specially configured tubes that increase the velocity and direct the air into the carburetor).  Other variations came with miniature superchargers, such as the Roots-style 671 blower commonly seen on hotrods and dragsters in the 1960s.

(See Gary Conley's site at www.conleyprecision.com.)

(See also YouTube.com at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Is9hcU78gA&feature=PlayList&p=865DCA5FEDB69FB5&index=35 for video of a Conley V8 (not this one) being run.)

55—Seidel ST 726 7-Cylinder Radial Model Aircraft Engine, designed and built by Wolfgang Seidel, Germany, 2000. L=10", W=14", H=16"

Wolfgang Seidel designed and produced many small 5-, 7- and 9-cylinder radial engines for model airplanes in the early 1990s. In the late 1990s, his designs led to larger engines, including 5-, 7- and 14-cylinder two-row radials.

The ST 726 is a 7-cylinder 180cc (11 cubic inch) radial that weighs approximately 16 pounds.  It burns methanol with castor oil mixed in for lubrication. It swings a 32-12 propeller at 4,500 revolutions per minute.

56—Seidel ST 1426 14-Cylinder Radial Model Aircraft Engine, designed and built by Wolfgang Seidel, Germany, 1998/1999. L=14", W=14", H=16", 31 lb 8 oz with display stand

Wolfgang Seidel custom designed and built several radial engines. The ST540, ST770 and ST996 were among the smaller series of radial engines that were used in one-fifth scale and one-fourth scale model aircraft. In the late 1990s, Seidel designed a larger series of radial engines that are commonly used in the larger one-quarter scale or smaller one-third scale model aircraft.

The ST1426 is the largest engine in the series, and perhaps the largest model airplane engine commercially sold. It is a 14-cylinder two-row 364cc (22.2 cubic inch) radial that is 14 inches in diameter, weighing 28 pounds and turning approximately 4,000 revolutions per minute.

To view a video of a Seidel ST 1426 being run CLICK HERE.

57—“Kitty Hawk” 4-Cylinder Inline Engine, 1/4-scale model made by Lloyd Butler, Ohio, 1980s. L=9", W=10", H=6"

The engine used in the 1903 Wright brothers’ flyer was a 4-cylinder, 4-cycle, internal-combustion engine that lifted the world’s first airplane and its pilot into the air in 1903. The engine was designed and built by Charlie Taylor and the Wright brothers. The engine had no fuel pump, carburetor or spark plugs. It was water cooled and generated 12 horsepower.

Lloyd Butler’s miniature “first engine of flight” model is liquid cooled and burns gasoline on a make-and-break ignition system—just like the full-size engine. A spark is generated between electrodes by breaking contact between them, a system specially adapted for internal combustion engines.

60—Micro Cirrus 4-Cylinder Inline Engine, (air cooled) designed by Merritt Zimmerman, 19741/12-scale models, built in Ukraine, 2001 and 2003. L=5", W=6", H=4"

Two variations of the model Cirrus engine are these micro engines from Ukraine. (See also #112 below for the V-8 version.) They run on methanol with glow ignition and are among the smallest multi-cylinder 4-cycle engines in the world. The custom glow plugs are only a 5mm hex with a 3.5mm thread. The engines are less than 4 inches long and have a mere .5cc displacement in each cylinder, making the 4-cylinder only 2cc and the V8 only 4cc total displacement. Initial test results proved these micro engines would spin their 7- and 8-inch propellers to 13,000 revolutions per minute.

Only 25 of the 1/12-scale 4-cylinder air-cooled engines were produced in 2001 and another 25 of a water-cooled version. In 2003, the remaining parts for the 4-cylinder engines were used to manufacture less than a half dozen each of the air-cooled and water-cooled V8 engines.

62—"Triscamp" 3-Cylinder Miniature Radial Engine, designed and built by Robert Washburn, Washington, circa 1990

Robert Washburn designed and fabricated eight of these tiny 3-cylinder, 2-cycle, methanol-burning radial engines by gearing together three individual engines into one housing.  Lubrication is provided by castor oil mixed with the fuel.

Frances and Robert Washburn published Strictly IC magazine from 1987 until 2001. At the time it was the only publication devoted to the design, development, machining and construction of miniature internal combustion engines. All back issues are still available at www.strictlyic.com.

66—Wall "Wizard" 2-Cylinder Opposed Engine, designed and manufactured by Elmer A. Wall, Wall's Model Engine Laboratory, Chicahg, Illinois, 1940's. L=8", W=12", H=7"

Elmer A. Wall began designing and manufacturing casting kits for miniature internal combustion engines during the Great Depression (1929-1941) and continued until his death in 1948. Among his designs was this 45 cc air cooled 4-cycle engine with overhead valves. He advertised that the engine was so well balanced that it would "start on the first turn-over if machined properly and that it would idle down to a tick or roar full speed when the throttle is opened."

67—Zimmerman “Cirrus” 4-Cycle V8 Engine, 1/6-scale model built by Profi M.E., 2001. L=14", W=6", H=6"

Modifications to the original Zimmerman design are the addition of 4 cylinders and a geared flywheel instead of a propeller hub, making it suitable for a small automobile or power boat. The gear on the flywheel drives a water pump for circulating coolant around the cylinders, through the heads, and into the radiator. Each of the two carburetors fuels one bank of four cylinders.

The connecting rod journals on the crankshaft are located opposite each other at 180 degrees, while the pistons and cylinders are mounted 90 degrees apart. The internal parts are lubricated with a small amount of oil in the crankcase, and with oil mixed in the fuel. The external rockers require manual oiling before running the engine.

70—Seidel ST525 5-Cylinder Radial Model Airplane Engine, designed and built by Wolfgang Seidel, Germany, 2000. L=14", W=12", H=12", Weight=14 lb 12 oz with display stand

This is among the largest 5-cylinder model-airplane engines built to date. It measures approximately 12 inches in diameter and 10 inches in length. It weighs approximately 12 pounds with 8 cubic inches (128cc) total displacement.  It runs on methanol with spark ignition. This is one of a few that has Wolfgang Seidel’s custom electronic ignition on the back of the engine.

75—Eldon I 2636 6-Cylinder Model Boat Engine, designed and built by Eldon Dwyer, New Mexico, early 1980s. L=14", W=8", H=7"

After building a prototype from bar stock, Dwyer made the patterns and castings to produce a second engine that he used in his power boat in 1982. It was modified for an electric starter since it was not readily accessible once mounted in the boat.

In the early 1980s, Dwyer started a company called Robotronics that produced and sold a casting kit and drawings for the engine. It is not known how many kits he manufactured and sold. In the early 1990s, Paul Knapp's Miniature Engineering Museum acquired his patterns, prototype, and this engine.

76—Gay 4-Cylinder Engine, designed and built in, San Diego, California, 1927. L=10", W=7", H=8", Weight=12 lb 4 0z

An instructor (Mr. Gay) and his class at the Naval Machinist School produced this 4-cycle air-cooled overhead-valve engine from aluminum castings, bronze and iron. The crankcase is cast in bronze, making the engine somewhat heavy, but eliminating the need to fabricate and insert crankshaft bearings. The crankcase is the oil reservoir for lubricating the internal parts. The crankshaft slings the oil as it spins. The external overhead rocker assembly is manually lubricated before running the engine.

The spark plugs were originally located on the side of the cylinder block, common for lower-compression engines. Perhaps to improve starting the engine or to improve its performance the plugs were relocated to the top of the head. An aluminum extension (slug) was bolted to the top of each piston to increase compression. The original spark-plug holes were then filled with brass plugs.

84—"Little Dominator" Model Aircraft Engine, designed and built by Noel Jensen, Montana, circa 1993. L=8", W=8", H=9"

When Noel Jensen needed an engine for his model airplane he drew a couple sketches, went into his workshop and produced a rotary valve, twin cylinder, air cooled engine that he called the Little Dominator. His engineering and machining skills led him to a simple design and efficient powerplant. The engine’s one-inch bore and 1.1-inch stroke turns a 16/6 propeller at 6000 revolutions per minute. The engine burns methanol on glow ignition and utilizes belt driven rotary (cylindrical) valves for induction and exhaust.

85—"Dominator" Model Aircraft Engine, designed and built by Noel Jensen, Montana, circa 1993. L=8", W=8", H=9"

See the "Little Dominator" engine above for Noel Jensen's basic design specifications. To achieve more power, Jensen added two more cylinders and produced the flat 4-cylinder opposed model he dubbed the Dominator. It sports ringed pistons, bronze-bushed rods, ball bearing crankshaft and stainless steel cylindrical rotors for valves. Its one-inch bore and stroke will spin a 20/8 propeller at 6000 revolutions per minute.

91—Clarke 1-Cylinder Trolling Boat Motor, 1/3-scale model built by Profi M. E., Ukraine, 2000. L=5", W=3", H=8"

The full-size motor was originally manufactured in Michigan in the 1930s. The propeller is mounted directly to the crankshaft and the entire engine is submerged under water for cooling.  It was only 21 inches long, so it was convenient to transport and to mount to the back of a boat. The operator would tilt the motor out of the water, wind a rope around the pulley and then quickly pull the rope to start the motor (like starting a lawnmower). The curved splash guard above the propeller protected the operator from becoming soaked while tipping the running motor back into the water. The aluminum tube carried the exhaust from the motor up and out of the water to prevent water from entering the motor when it was turned off.

This model is a copy of the full-size 1– horsepower motor.

92—Clarke 2-Cylinder Trolling Boat Motor, 1/3-scale model built by Profi M. E., Ukraine, 2002. L=6", W=3", H=10"

Like the model above, the full-size version of this motor was originally manufactured in Michigan in the 1930s. It operates in the same manner, with the entire motor operating underwater to keep it cool while air is ducted down through the cast case. The copper exhaust pipe runs up above water level and then back down to exhaust under water. This keeps water from entering the motor through the exhaust pipe when the motor is not running.

This model is a copy of the full-size 2-horsepower motor.

93—Luhrs Mini Single-Cylinder, 4-Cycle Engine, built by George Luhrs, Long Island, NY, circa 2001. L=6", W=3", H=6"

Two limiting factors in the miniaturization of gasoline engines are the size of the air and fuel molecules. George Luhrs dispelled the theory that gasoline burning, spark ignition engines can be miniaturized only so far, considering this engines is one of the largest he has built. With a bore and stroke of only 1/8 of an inch, one of his smaller four-cycle, single-cylinder gasoline engines nearly fits inside the gas tank of this engine, and his tiny works of art run magnificently.

George is a master at micro engineering, machining and finishing and has produced a five-cylinder, four-cycle, spark ignition radial engine that fits inside a coffee cup. He has won many awards for his efforts.

109—Stover Type “K” Stationary Engine, Freeport, Illinois, 1920s, model built by George Luhrs, NY, 1990s. L=5", W=3", H=4"

Stationary engines were extensively used to power machinery and equipment in all industries from the late 1800’s into the mid 1940’s. D.C. Stover was a prolific inventor and began manufacturing various products in 1862. In 1916 he formed the Stover Manufacturing and Engine Company and production peaked in 1919. Before closing their doors in February 1942 Stover shipped 277,558 engines. 

George Luhrs is known for producing the smallest engines in the world and his miniature Stover is no exception. He machines every part from bar stock and utilizes no castings. It burns gasoline on spark ignition and, just as its full-size counterpart, requires manual lubrication before operation. Spark is produced by a small coil and battery located in the base.

The engine is accompanied by a box to transport it. The wood for the box and base match, and the lid of the box contains a few special tools to aid in running the motor.

112—"Micro Cirrus" V8 Engine, (air cooled) designed by Merritt Zimmerman, 1974, 1/12-scale model manufactured by Profi ME, Ukraine, 2001 - 2003 

Two variations of the model Cirrus engine are these micro engines from Ukraine. (The 4-cylinder version can be seen as #60 above.) They run on methanol with glow ignition and are among the smallest multi-cylinder 4-cycle engines in the world. The custom glow plugs are only a 5mm hex with a 3.5mm thread. The engines are less than 4 inches long and have a mere .5cc displacement in each cylinder, making the 4-cylinder only 2cc and the V8 only 4cc total displacement. Initial test results proved these micro engines would spin their 7- and 8-inch propellers to 13,000 revolutions per minute.

Only 25 of the 1/12-scale 4-cylinder air-cooled engines were produced in 2001 and another 25 of a water-cooled version. In 2003, the remaining parts for the 4-cylinder engines were used to manufacture less than a half dozen each of the air-cooled and water-cooled V8 engines.

114—Gnome 160 Rotary Airplane Engine, 1/3 Scale model built by Ray Williams, New York, 2001. L=24", W=16", H=19", Display weight=47 lb 10 oz

Ray Williams built both a 1/3 scale model of the Gnome 160 horsepower rotary engine and the World War I Avro 504K airplane that was designed in 1913 in the United Kingdom. Williams flew his model in December, 2001 making this the first model rotary engine ever to fly.

The model engine, as in the full-size engine, operates on gasoline with spark ignition and a pressurized oil system. It has a displacement of 27 cu. in. and the engine itself weighs 11 pounds. The scale model Avro 504K into which it was fitted had a 12-foot wingspan.

The first successful air cooled rotary engine was developed in 1896 in the United States. The French-built Gnome rotary was used extensively in airplanes during World War I. A typical rotary engine has a fixed crankshaft with rotating cylinders and crankcase that carry the propeller. Since the oil cannot be reclaimed from a rotating engine, it is discharged after combustion. (This is known as a "total loss" oiling system.) WWI pilots would constantly have to wipe off their goggles and windscreens from this oil spray during flight.

115—Valentine "Blitz" 1-cylinder Diesel Engine, designed and built by Ron Valentine, Germany, circa 1993

This and the following engine are among the smallest engines in the world. (Note the U.S. quarter dollar coin used as the support base for a size reference.) These 2-cycle diesel engines burn a special diesel fuel that is less viscous and produces combustion when head and pressure are applied. The piston and cylinder are lapped, a machining process that matches the piston to the cylinder so closely in size (within millionths of an inch) that  piston rings are not needed.

A diesel engine has no spark plug. As the piston compresses the fuel and air mixture into the top of the combustion chamber, the heat caused by compression eventually causes it to explode.

116—Valentine "Rasant" 1-cylinder Diesel Engine, designed and built by Ron Valentine, Germany, circa 1993

This and the previous engine are among the smallest engines in the world. (Note the U.S. quarter dollar coin used as the support base for a size reference.) These 2-cycle diesel engines burn a special diesel fuel that is less viscous and produces combustion when head and pressure are applied. The piston and cylinder are lapped, a machining process that matches the piston to the cylinder so closely in size (within millionths of an inch) that  piston rings are not needed.

A diesel engine has no spark plug. As the piston compresses the fuel and air mixture into the top of the combustion chamber, the heat caused by compression eventually causes it to explode.

124—"Sea Lion" 4-Cylinder, 4-Cycle, Water Cooled Marine Engine, built by Jim Hawk, circa 1980's.  L=13", W=6", H=9"

This tiny marine engine was designed and sold as a casting kit by Edgar Westbury of England. Jim Hawk made several modifications to the original design to improve efficiency and performance. He increased the flow of coolant by fabricating centrifugal water pump to replace the original small gear pump. He designed a new dry sump lubrication system and improved the compression ratio by fabricating pistons with oil control rings, a stronger head and combustion chamber as well as stronger, lighter alloy connecting rods. 

126—"Maxse T-Seven" 7-cylinder Radial Model Airplane Engine, built by Maxse Tayler, B.C., Canada, circa 1996. L=31", W=31", H=21" on table stand

Closely resembling the Jacobs 7-cylinder radial engine, Maxse Tayler used the piston and cylinder assemblies from the commercially manufactured Saito 120 model airplane engines. Everything else was fabricated or machined from bar stock. It sports a full compliment of accessories including electronic ignition, shielded wiring, fuel primer pump, fuel-air mixture control, high altitude carburetor pre-heater, two oil pumps, two generators and dual magnetos. The lubrication system uses a dry sump and two-stage oil pump.

It took Maxse several months just to design and fabricate the tooling to balance the master rod assembly. After completion it was equipped with oil pressure and vacuum gages for monitoring performance during operation. It took approximately 7 years to complete.

132—"Green Dragon" Model Airplane Engine, built by John Nuovo, California, early 1990's. L=7", W=5", H=6"

John Nuovo acquired the castings from Australia and produced six engines that he dubbed "Green Dragon" after applying the crackle green finish. This is an air cooled aircraft version with a light weight cast iron lined aluminum cylinder. It burns methanol with castor oil mixed in for lubrication on spark ignition. The fuel is contained within the machined aluminum tank mounted to the back of the engine. he is well known for his precise machining skills and engine building capability to produce engines for airplanes, boats and tether cars.

In 1940, a similar engine was commercially sold as a "Silver Crown Champion" from Champion Products, Co. Los Angeles, CA. The Silver Crown was primarily a boat engine with dual carburetors mounted above the crankshaft, large swept exhaust stacks, parallel head fins and a clamp-on bypass and exhaust manifold.

133—"Green Dragon" Model Automobile Engine, built by John Nuovo, California, early 1990's. L-=7", W=5", H=6"

Like the engine shown above (#132) the two-cycle, air cooled engine was dubbed "Green Dragon" due to its green crackle paint finish. A similar engine was sold commercially in the 1940's under the name "Silver Crown" from Silver Crown Co. in Los Angeles. John Nuovo acquired the aluminum castings and machined the cylinder from steel and the head from bronze. It has two carburetors mounted above the crankshaft, large swept exhaust stacks, parallel head fins and a clamp-on bypass and exhaust manifold. It runs on spark ignition and burns methanol with castor oil mixed in for lubrication. It has a pulley on the flywheel for rope starting and an adjustable timer (with points) in front for setting the spark advance.

135—"Rasant MK III" Diesel Radial Model Airplane Engine, built by Ron Vanlentine, Germany, 2004. L=2.5", W=3", H=2"

Although radial in appearance, the engine operates like an inline engine. Instead of a master rod with its articulating rods in the same plane, the three cylinders are staggered from front to back. Thererfore, the crankshaft is linear, similar to that used in an inline engine. The journals on the crank are spaced to match the cylinders at 120 degrees apart so all of the cylinders fire at the same time. It burns a special form of diesel fuel (less viscous) that produces combustion when heat and pressure is applied. The piston and cylinder are lapped together to within a tolerance of several millionths of an inch, eliminating the need for piston rings. The fuel provides a liquid seal in the cylinder and as the piston compresses the fuel-air mixture into the combustion chamber, it is ignited by heating through compression. Diesel engines require no form of mechanical or electrical ignition but can be difficult to start on cool days.

140—Manx 250IL 2-Cylinder Inline Model Airplane Engine, designed and built by Robert Hoskins, Tennessee, 1979

Robert Hoskins, President of Aero Tech Inc. (Tennessee) developed this engine in 1979 to fly his model airplane. He wanted scale sound; something the 2-cycle engines could not produce. Striving for light weight reliability, he machined this model from aluminum bar stock and engineered 13 ball bearings into it—6 that support the crankshaft alone. Although expensive to construct, the reliability and power output were worth the effort. The engine turned 7500 revolutions per minute with a 20-6 propeller on glow ignition and flew his 35-pound airplane with ease.

Responding to requests from friends Robert began to manufacture the engines for sale. It was never mass produced, but rather individually custom machined, inspected and assembled for maximum quality and reliability. Construction time was long and deliveries were slow, which led to only a few engines actually completed and sold.

143—5-Cylinder Radial Model Airplane Engine, designed and built by Barry Robinson, England, 1998. L=7", W=10", H=10"

This is an all aluminum bar stock engine with a bore of 19 mm, stroke of 19.2 mm and a total displacement of 27.21 cc. The cylinders are lined with chrome plated brass liners and the pistons incorporate compression rings. it measures about 7" in diameter and burns methanol on glow ignition. Barry constructed three of these 5-cylinder radials as well as a few 9-cylinder radials and two-cylinder opposed engines. many of the components such as the piston and cylinder assemblies are common to all of his engines.

144—2-Cylinder Opposed Model Airplane Engine, made by Barry Robinson, England, early 1990's. L=6", W=8", H=4:

Barry Robinson machined the entire engine from bar stock. It has a bore of 19 mm and a stroke of 19.2 mm for a total displacement of 10.9 cc. The cylinders are lined with chrome plated brass liners, and the pistons incorporate compression rings. It burns methanol on glow ignition. Castor oil is mixed with the fuel for internal lubrication, but the rocker arms require manual lubrication before running the engine. Barry constructed only three of these 2-cylinder airplane engines as well as a few 5-cylinder and 9-cylinder radial engines. Several of the components in this engine were used to construct the other variations he designed.

145—JT 1800 9-Cylinder Radial Model Airplane Engine, designed and built by John v. Thompson, Kansas, early 1990's. L=14", W=28" (prop), H=14"

John Thompson employed Saito 120 model airplane engine cylinder assemblies for this radial, but from that point on it is his design. Each cylinder has its own pair of cams that operate the inlet and exhaust valves. it weighs in a t 28 pounds and has a 1.25-inch (32 mm) bore and a 1-inch (24.8 mm) stroke with a total displacement of 10.8 cu. in. (180 cc). Initial tests with a 28-14 propeller indicated it produces 18+ horsepower. John incorporated a Borg Warner 1SH`1 2-inch, 10-blade turbocharger compressor for fuel distribution and atomization located within the intake manifold in the rear of the engine. it runs on glow ignition and burns gasoline with oil mixed in for lubrication. It sports his custom designed hydraulic controlled variable pitch propeller.

146—Thompson "Tarantula" 9-Engine Radial Model Aircraft Engine, designed and built by John V. Thompson, Kansas, 1970's. L=12", W=18", H=11"

Construction articles fro John's Tarantula were published in Strictly IC magazine in the 1980's. The "9-engine" part of the name is not a typo. It is because the engine consists of nine individual Cox .049 1-cylinder model airplane engines geared together in an aluminum crankcase hidden within a plastic Williams Brother Pratt & Whitney R-985 model engine kit. The nine engines are geared to the propeller shaft and all cylinders fire at the same time. It's a 9-engine engine.

The engine performed flawlessly and, surprisingly, the heat did not distort the plastic kit during operation. A single carburetor is mounted on a centralized intake manifold in the back, which has nine tubes extending from the manifold to each engine resembling the legs of a spider...thus the name, "Tarantula." The second photo shows this manifold on the back side of the engine.

147—Thompson Designs Flat Four Model Airplane Engine, model by John V. Thompson, Kansas, 1990's. L=13", W=13", H=11"

John used the cylinder assemblies from Honda weed-eater engines to produce this flat four aero engine. His custom crankcase holds the oil for lubrication and the engine runs gasoline with spark ignition. Spark is provided by a remote electronic capacitor discharge ignition with a spark advance linked to the carburetor linkage. Instead of making an intake manifold to operate all four cylinders from one carburetor, John chose to leave each cylinder assembly as it came from the factory with the carburetor attached to the head. Then he designed a geared linkage to connect and operate the four carburetors from one throttle cable. it swings a 24-10 propeller but no recorded specifications were found to verify its capacity or performance.

148—John Deere Type "E" 1-1/2 HP Stationary Engine, Gene Dettmar prototype, Dettmar Industries, Waterloo, IA, 1980's. L=16", W=10", H=12"

Dettmar Industries of Waterloo, IA began to produce this 1/2 scale model of the John Deere Type "E" stationary engine in the 1980's. Little is known about the company's outcome, but few if any became available for purchase. Since the late 80's, only a small number of casting kits and completed engines have appeared.

This example is a gasoline burning stationary (hit-n-miss) engine with a 1.8-inch bore and 2-inch stroke, enclosed crankcase and a make-and-break ignition system. Oil is held in the crankcase and splashed (slung) around by the crankshaft to lubricate the internal parts while the external components require manual oiling periodically. The model swings the two massive flywheels at an average speed of 600 RPM. The flywheels store the energy necessary to power other machinery and equipment. The full-size engine used a magneto to provide the spark for ignition; however, the model uses a small battery and coil or electronic ignition to spark the contact points within the combustion chamber.

158—Morton M-42 4-cylinder, In-line, Flathead Model Car Engine, made by Jim Hawk, Oklahoma, circa 2006. L=9", W=5", H=5"

In 1944, many of the components used in the Morton M5 radial engine and M-4 inline were to be incorporated into this newly proposed M-42 flathead engine. The drawings for the M-42 were completed, but the engine never made it to production. From only one drawing that survived the Morton Company, Jim Hawk fabricated the wooden patterns, produced his own aluminum castings and machined the components to complete this running model. It burns gasoline on spark ignition and will turn a 14-6 propeller in excess of 6500 RPM.

Flathead engine were commonly called side-valve engines because the valves are  positioned in the block alongside the cylinders. Overhead valves are positioned in the head above the combustion chamber. since overhead valves ere not developed until the 1950's, the heads for the side-valve engines were flat, resulting in the name "flathead."

164—Heinen Motore (HEMO) V-4, designed and built by Jurgen Heinen, Germany, 1994. L=12", W=6", H=7"

Jurgen Heinen machined the engine from aluminum bar stock and produced the finish by hand. it has a bore of 32 mm and a stroke of 28 mm with a total displacement of 20 cc. It is a belt driven dual overhead cam single-cylinder with 4 valves—two for the intake and two for the exhaust. It burns methanol on glow ignition and spins a 20 x 8 propeller up to 14,000 RPM.

A second panel was installed in a Sopwith Snipe airplane model

166—Sopwith Snipe Instrument Panel, 1/4-museum-scale model built by Robert Cooper, Georgia, 2003. L=6", W=9", H=8"

Robert Cooper built a “museum-scale” model of the 1918 British Sopwith Snipe fighter aircraft.  A museum-scale model contains everything as close to the real thing as possible. For example:  Most aircraft are riveted together with thousands of rivets. In a scale model the builder makes fake rivets with glue drops for each rivet. For museum scale, the model builder makes the rivets, installs them and sets them just like the full-size airplane.

Cooper’s model airplanes have several functional features including the Bentley BR2 rotary engine built by Paul Knapp with throttle quadrant, tamper valve, fuel pump and fuel filter.

This is a copy of the instrument panel from Cooper’s model. It features operating lights from individual toggle switches located in the accumulator box (lower right). The magneto switches (lower left) are below the pulsator (glass tube oil pressure gage). The turn-and-bank indicator and fuel gage are lower center. The second photo shot in low light shows the lights shining on each instrument, powered by a set of batteries on the back of the panel. The tiny switches in the lower right corner of the panel actually activate each light individually.

The pulsator and fuel gage have operational petcocks for emergency shut-off in case of glass breakage. On top are a tachometer, air speed indicator, clock and altimeter. Directly below the air speed indicator is a famous air compass type 5/17 that actually tracks true north just like its full-size counterpart.

171—Tadpole, 1/3-Scale Model of the 1939 Dooling Brother’s “Frog” Tether Car, designed and built by Ted Maciag, Florida, 2006. L=8", W=4", H=2"

Before the advent of radio control, miniature automobile races were accomplished by suspending the model car with a cable (tether) from the center of a 100-foot circular track. The speed of the car could be accurately calculated since the time to complete a lap was recorded and the distance was known. In the late 1930's the Dooling Brothers .60 cubic inch powered aluminum car called the “Frog” made history as it spun around the track at about 80 miles per hour. Ted’s miniature Frog, dubbed “Tadpole”, is powered by a Cox .01 cubic inch engine with a 2:1 gear ratio driving the rear wheels. It runs on alcohol and 25% nitro-methane for fuel and will achieve speeds of about 30 miles per hour.

177—V12 Air-Cooled OHV Model Aircraft Engine, designed by Martin Ohrendorf, Germany, builder unknown, 2000

This 60-degree, overhead valve V-12 is machined from billet aluminum (bar stock) with cast iron lined cylinders. It has a bore of 21 mm and stroke is 21 mm, making the total displacement 87 cc. It burns methanol on glow ignition and spins its 24/10 propeller at 4,500 RPM. Each carburetor supplies fuel to four opposed cylinders, and the three carburetors are linked together for smooth operation.

To see and hear a similar engine run on YouTube, see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mutb7KgA9NM. Despite the massive flywheel, it revs fast and sounds good!

189—“Eldon I 2636” 6-Cylinder, Two-Cycle, In-line Model Boat Engine, deigned by Eldon Dwyer, New Mexico, early 1980s, built by Jim Hawk, Oklahoma, late 1980s. L=13", W=7", H=7"

After building a prototype from bar stock, Dwyer made the patterns and castings to produce a second engine that he used in his power boat in 1982. He started a company called Robotronics that produced and sold a casting kit and drawings for the engine. It is not known how many kits he manufactured and sold, but this example is one of three built by Jim Hawk. It is water cooled (including the exhaust), sports a 120-degree crankshaft and burns methanol on glow ignition. In the early 1990s, the Miniature Engineering Museum acquired the patterns, prototype and Eldon’s power boat engine.

Engines added to the museum display on July 24, 2008

04—14-Cylinder, Twin-Row Radial Engine, 1/8 scale, designed and built by Dennis Fadden, Canada, circa 1996. L=8', W=6", H=7".

The model operates on regular gasoline with spark ignition and swings a 12-inch diameter propeller. Dennis Fadden used cylinder and head castings produced by Bruce Satra, Utah, rather than machining them himself. However, most of Fadden's model engines are machined from bar stock rather than using castings.

Fadden's engines vary from simple single-cylinder model airplane engines to complex in-line and opposed multi-cylinder engines. Fadden also has produced an array of custom designed model inboard and outboard boat motors. he does not produce or use any drawings to create his engines.

The radial engine was originally developed in the 1920's. The model is based on engines built by several manufacturers in the 1930's and 1940's for use in World War II aircraft.

05 and 06—Fadden 1-cylinder and 3-cylinder Engines, designed and built by Dennis Fadden, Canada, early 1990's. L=7", W=6", H=8".

Dennis Fadden designed both the 1-cylinder and the 3-cylinder engines. Bruce Satra, Utah, made the cylinder and head castings for both engines, but Fadden machined the crankcase for the 1-cylinder engine from bar stock (billet) material.

To produce the 3-cylinder radial engine, Fadden made patterns from wood and used the patterns to sand cast the crankcase and gear case from aluminum. Then he machined the castings and internal parts.

Both engines have spark ignition and burn regular gasoline or methanol mixed with oil for lubrication. Most 1-cylinder spark ignition engines utilize a timer assembly (moveable set of points) governed by the crankshaft to trip the coil that fires the spark plug. In a 4-cycle engine, the spark plug fires every revolution, wasting the spark on exhaust fumes. To eliminate this problem in the 1-cylinder engine, Fadden added the camshaft-driven distributor with a rotor to direct the high tension electricity from the coil to the spark plug.

11—Mason "Mastiff" 4-Cylinder Opposed Engine, designed by L.C. Mason, England, built by T.E. Murphy, Phoenix, AZ, 1982. L=13", W=8", H= 9", Weight = 13 lb.

After L.C. Mason designed this water cooled engine he published a book on how to machine and construct a running engine. T.E. Murphy fabricated everything for this dual carburetor version, including his own spark plugs. The engine burns gasoline on spark ignition. it has a 19 mm bore with a 22.2 mm stroke. Total displacement is 24 cc.

22—Loop Aircraft Tachometer, 1/4 scale, designed and built by Pat Loop, Washington, 1995.

Tachometers display the speed of an engine in revolutions per minute (rpm) and this is one of the smallest mechanical tachometers in the world. Pat Loop created this miniature tach to confirm that it could function and display rpm as accurately as a full-size tach. Extensive testing proved that it could. It displayed accurate readings from 0 to 7000 rpm.

Tachometers are usually driven by a flexible shaft or cable attached to the engine's camshaft. Within its mechanism, the rotating shaft generates a magnetic field that creates needle movement as the engine's speed changes. This mechanism can be calibrated so the needle accurately displays the engine's exact running speed.

37—Coholic 3-Cylinder Radial Engine, designed and built by Andrew Coholic, Canada, 1999. L=8", W=4", H=9".

Andrew Coholic created this tiny 2-cycle radial engine by mounting three Cox .049 engines into a common crankcase. The engines are geared together with a common propeller shaft, and they alternately fire every 120 degrees. The carburetor is mounted to a manifold that feeds fuel to each engine upon its intake cycle.

Two-cycle engine usually require pressure in the crankcase to force fuel into the combustion chamber on the intake cycle. The gearing of individual 2-cycle engine together eliminates the need for a pressurized crankcase.

A 1-cylinder, 2-cycle engine produces the necessary pressure as the piston is driven down toward the crankcase from combustion. Since radial engines have pistons traveling away from the crankcase at the same time other pistons travel towards the crankcase, the pressure is cancelled. Therefore, 2-cycle radial engines require a pump or supercharger to increase and maintain pressure in the crankcase during operation.

41—18-Cylinder, Two-row Radial Engine, 1/4 scale, made by Harold Beckett, circa 1995

Harold Becket is a retired United Airlines pilot who handcrafted this engine from drawings provided by Sam and Lee Hodgeson. The model operates on regular gasoline with dual spark ignition. It has a pressurized lubrication system.

The radial engine was much more powerful and reliable than the old rotary design (where the whole engine turns). It was used to power large aircraft such as airliners and bombers. Two-row radials were used extensively in World War II aircraft. The Pratt & Whitney R-1830 (14-cylinder two-row radial) was produced in greater numbers than any piston aircraft engine. it was used in the Consolidated B-24 and PBY-2 as well as the Douglas C-47/DC-3.

In 1939, the Pratt & Whitney R-1830 was installed in the Grumman F4F-3 and was the world's first engine to use a two-stage supercharger—two years ahead of the first two-stage Rolls Royce Merlin V-12 engines.

To see and hear a YouTube video of a single bank 9-cylinder Hodgeson radial engine CLICK HERE. It was built by John Collier. Plans for the 9-cylinder engine can be found at: http://www.agelessengines.com/.

49—Kavan FK50 MKI 2-Cylinder, Opposed Miniature Airplane Engine, designed and built by Franz Kavan, Germany, mid-1980's. L=9", W=11", H=8", Weight = 9 lb-10 oz.

The engine burns methanol on glow ignition. Later production engines became available with a shielded spark ignition. Placing the spark plug wires into a metal casing (braided tubing) eliminates radio interference generated by the spark plugs, essential when flying radio controlled model aircraft.

This is one of the earliest model airplane engines with an oil sump that holds lubricating oil for the crankcase components. This is known as a "splash" oil system. The crankshaft is partially submerged into the oil level in the sump. As it spins, it slings oil throughout the entire crankcase assembly. The upper combustion chamber, rocker arms and valves are lubricated by oil mixed with the fuel.

This engine resembles half of the 4-cylinder Continental C-85 commonly used in the Piper Cub airplane shown below.

54—Continental C-85 Opposed Aircraft Engine, 1/4 scale, built by Dennis Fadden, Canada, circa 1990. L=10", W=10", H=9", Weight = 8lb.

Dennis Fadden's Continental C-85 is a "true-to-scale" model of the full-size version that was commonly used in light aircraft during the post-World War II period—most notably in the Piper Cub.

The model burns gasoline, has a dual spark ignition and a pressurized oil system. Fadden detailed the engine right down to the embossed valve covers and the true-to-scale air cleaner. The crankcase is an aluminum casting produced from hand crafted wooden patterns that Fadden made himself. This C-85 model is the first of only two produced by Dennis Fadden.

63—Satra 0-440 4-cylinder Opposed Model Aircraft Engine, designed and built by Bruce Satra, Utah, mid-1980's.

Bruce Satra engineered and fabricated this 40 cc, 4-cylinder opposed model aircraft engine for a series of construction articles that were published in Strictly IC and Engineering in Miniature magazines.

69—Anzani 3-Cylinder Radial Aircraft Engine, 1/4 scale, designed by Les Chenery, England, built by Roger Butzen, California, circa 1995. L=15", @=23", H=12", Weight = 14 lb-2 oz.

This scale model runs on gasoline with spark ignition and pressurized lubrication system. The cylinders are spaced 120° apart, thus creating a radial configuration. Engine drawings and castings for the crankcase, cylinders and carburetor were provided by Les Chenery.

In the early 1900's, Italian-born Alessandro Anzani began building engines in France. his first success was a 2-cylinder motorcycle engine that established a world speed record in 1905. A few years later, Anzani turned to making an aeroplane engine.

Anzani tried various designs, and then, in 1910 he simply added a third cylinder to his twin cylinder, air-cooled motorcycle engine. he did this by arranging the cylinders first in a fan shape (model engine also on display) and later in radial form. In this way he eliminated the radiator and all water cooling apparatus, reducing engine weight significantly.

73—Schillings 4-Cylinder In-line DOHC Engine, designed and built by Hubert Schillings, Germany, circa 1975. L=11", W=6", H=6", Weight = 7 lb-2 oz.

Hubert Schillings designed several miniature engines from 1970 to 1980. Configurations vary from 1-cylinder aircraft engines to 2-, 3-, 4-, 6- and 8-cylinder inline and V-type engines for both aircraft and automobiles. Most of his engines were machined from aluminum bar stock, but a few were machined from magnesium.

The 4-cylinder in-line dual overhead cam (DOHC) engine has cylinders in a row vertical to the crankshaft. Each cylinder has four valves (two for intake and two for exhaust) to improve performance and efficiency. Two camshafts operate the valves. One camshaft operates the intake valves and the other the exhaust valves, thus "dual overhead cams."

Typically, Schillings used belts to drive the cams rather than gears, but rarely enclosed the belt drive system in a housing as is seen here. It is not known how many of these 4-cylinder DOHC engines he produced.

77—Holt 75 Caterpillar Engine, Model by Reinhold Krieger, Germany, 2001. L=12", W=7", H=10", Weight = 15 lb.

The Holt 75 Caterpillar casting kit was first introduced by Cole's Power Models of Ventura, CA around 1940, but after WWII it lay dormant. Coles re-activated it in 1970 after a new set of patterns was made to comply with the modern foundry practices. It is a 4-cylinder, 4-cycle, water cooled in-line engine that was, in full size, most successfully used in tanks of WWI. The speed of the engine is controlled by a centrifugal fly-ball governor that was commonly used for governing the speed of steam engines. The model engine has a bore of 1 inch and a stroke of 1-1/4". The crankcase holds the lubricating oil that is distributed by the crankshaft as it spins, but external rocker arms must be manually lubricated before operating the engine. it is water cooled and burns gasoline using a spark ignition.

(See http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tl0nD1smbAg&feature=related and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AjQLKLaDOTY&feature=related for two videos of Holt engines (not this particular one) being run.)

79—Wall Duplex Mariner, built by Elmer A. Wall, circa 1940-41. L=9", W=6", H=8".

Elmer A. Wall, an engineer/inventor of considerable ability, operated a motor car manufacturing company in Chicago before Ford made his Model "T." He also designed and built an electrical power system supplying part of the city before Consolidated Edison existed. He had many associates in the engineering profession in this country and abroad. During the depression he began designing and manufacturing casting kits for miniature internal combustion engines such as this Duplex Mariner.

Wall's Model Engine Laboratory was located in Chicago, IL and the catalog cover read:

"Build Your Model Internal Combustion Engines with

WALL CASTINGS and DETAILED DRAWINGS

on your own lathe in your own work shop.

Easy to Build and Interesting to Run.

Suitable for Model Aircraft and

Record-Breaking Model Power Boats.

Also

Has it ever occurred to you that in buying these construction sets you are purchasing knowledge which has taken some other man, an expert at his job, a lifetime to acquire?"

86—Miniature 7-Cylinder Radial Engine, designed and built by Pius Job, Switzerland, 1993. L=10", W=9", H=15" (on stand).

Pius Job, a Swiss engineer, worked for Esec USA when he fabricated this engine from aircraft grade aluminum and steel. The lightweight aluminum cylinders are lined with cast iron sleeves to support ringed pistons, and the crankshaft and cam ring ride in ball bearings. it burns methanol (with oil mixed in for lubrication) on glow ignition and turns a 24-10 propeller at 6,000 rpm. The external rocker arms require manual lubrication before operating the engine.

98—Fadden 1-Cylinder Model Airplane Engine, designed by Bruce Satra, Utah, 2000 and built by Dennis Fadden, Canada, 2002. L-5", W=4", H=5".

Dennis Fadden built this model engine using castings made by Bruce Satra. The cylinder and head assembly is from a 1/6 scale model of the Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Jr. 9-cylinder engine that Satra manufactures and sells as a kit.

Utilizing just one cylinder assembly, Satra designed and engineered this new product. After machining his first engines from aluminum bar stock, Satra produced castings for the crankcase and began selling this little single Pratt in kit form too.

100—Anzani 3-Cylinder Fan Engine, 1/4 scale, designed by Alfred Eichinger, Austria, custom built in Ukraine, 2002. L-8", W=12", H=9", Weight = 3 lb- 13 oz.

The automatic inlet valves are situated inside the head where the intake pipe connects. The exhaust valves are mechanically operated at the back of the combustion chamber. The model has spark ignition and burns gasoline mixed with oil for lubrication.

In 1910, Italian born Alessandro Anzani added a third cylinder to his twin-cylinder, air-cooled motorcycle engine to create this fan-type aircraft engine. Anzani's fan engine carried Frenchman Louis Blériot in his monoplane over the English Channel in 1909—the world's first flight over a large body of water in a "heavier-than-air" craft.

Anzani later revised the fan design moving the three cylinders from above the centerline into a radial design. The three cylinders were spaced 120° apart for smother operation. this is one of six Alfred Eichinger models custom built in the Ukraine in 2002.

106—1-Cylinder, 4-Cycle Model Boat Motor, designed and built by Henry Parohl, NY, 1960's. L=5", W=4", H=4".

“On September 8, 1935 at the annual Walter Elliot Memorial Race in New York’s Central Park, Henry was crowned a new champion when his gas driven Elanor 2 powerboat was clocked at 26.77 mph in 5 laps around a 750 foot circular coarse. The precision necessary in the construction of the motor was nothing new to the owner, who in private life, was a craftsman making tiny dies for a wrist watch company.”

   —From The Model Craftsman, November, 1935

Little information is known about Henry Parohl’s engines, but most were designed to power model boats.  It is estimated he built about 350 model engines of varying configurations from single-cylinder 2and 4-cycle engines to complex multi-cylinder boat and airplane engines. Toward the end of his model engine building career he designed and constructed a few model (Mazda type) rotary engines and began to fabricate a small jet engine. 

121—Supercharged Thunderbird Miniature Engine, manufactured by Scott Motors, Inc., Arizona, 1940s. L=6", W=3", H=6".

In 1946, the Thunderbird was advertised as the only miniature engine with a genuine supercharger, “just like the big ones!” Supercharging increases atmospheric pressure in the engine to produce more horsepower.

The ad described the engine as “the perfect racing engine for airplanes, cars and boats.”

Scott Motors, Inc., was located at Sky Harbor Airport. It was owned by John Connelly and Leland Hayward. Connelly ran the aircraft overhaul facility at the airport and Hayward had some connection with the airline industry. The company was named after Connelly’s son, Scott.

123—Wankel (Mazda Type) Rotary Engine, model designed and built by Henry Parohl, NY, 1960s. L=6", W=7", H=6".

Henry Parohl miniaturized almost every configuration of internal combustion engine that was invented, including this Wankel (Mazda type) rotary engine. It is a two-cycle engine that burns gasoline with oil mixed in for lubrication. The tank sits above the engine and the fuel is gravity fed into carburetor’s float bowl (cylindrical tank next to the carburetor. The float bowl retains a steady level of fuel and maintains constant pressure for the fuel available to the carburetor. The spark for the ignition is provided by an external battery and coil.

125—Parohl Single-Cylinder, Overhead Valve (OHV) 4-valve Model Boat Engine, designed and built by Henry Parohl, New York, 1960s. L=9", W=9", H=10".

To gain efficiency and performance Henry Parohl installed 4 valves in the head of this engine. The two rocker-arm shafts are controlled by a single camshaft behind, and at the base of the cylinder. Gasoline is gravity fed into the float bowl (of carburetor), which maintains a constant pressure and steady volume of fuel available to the carburetor. Lubrication is accomplished by gravity from a small transparent reservoir that the operator must fill before running the engine. It is located behind the fuel tank and slowly meters oil from the reservoir into the engine for lubrication during operation. The rocker-arms and shafts must be manually lubricated before running the engine. Typically model air-cooled engines are designed for aircraft, but Parohl fitted this one with a flywheel and rope-start pulley for a model powerboat or automobile.

130—Fadden .010 Outboard Boat Motor, designed and built by Dennis Fadden, Canada, 2005. L=3", W=1", H=3.5"

This is one of two miniature boat motors Dennis Fadden machined from bar stock that incorporated a Cox .010 engine. Because of the complex contours and radii of the lower end, most were hand formed. First, material is removed by rough machining on conventional equipment with straight linear cuts. Then, the contours are created by hand with files. It’s precise, requiring a good eye, patience and a tremendous amount of time.

142—Racing Thunderbird (Hayward-Connelly), manufactured by Scott Motors, Inc., 1940’s. L=5", W=4, H=6".

Scott Motors, Inc., was located at Sky Harbor Airport in Phoenix, AZ. It was owned by John Connelly and Leland Hayward.  Connelly ran the aircraft overhaul facility at the airport and Hayward had some connection with the airline industry. The company was named after Connelly’s son, Scott. The Racing Thunderbird engines were developed and tested in the Phoenix facility, but it is not known if any were actually sold between 1946 and 1948 when the company relocated to the San Francisco Municipal Airport. Just as production was getting underway on the Racing Thunderbird a fire destroyed much of the manufacturing facility, which put a halt to continued work. 

At that time, the introduction of the glow plug made the already manufactured parts and engines obsolete; combined with tumbling prices for model airplane engines Scott Motors closed its doors forever.

154—Boxer 2-Cylinder Opposed Aircraft Engine, designed and built by unknown maker, Germany, unknown date. L=9", W=9", H=7"

The 4-cyle engine appears to be made from castings, but was actually constructed from aluminum, brass and steel bar stock. Much of it was roughed out on conventional machine shop equipment. Many hours were spent hand-forming the parts using files and scrapers. The finish was applied by glass beading the surfaces and then nickel-plating the steel parts, such as the rocker arms and propeller hub.

The most unique feature is two exhaust ports for each cylinder. This was accomplished by drilling into the head from the front, cross drilling from the top to the bottom, and then plugging the original hole ahead of the exhaust pipes.

Someone in Germany restored this engine for display. For a finishing touch, he plated the steel exhaust pipes with chrome and then heated them with a torch until blue. This gives the appearance that the engine has been run since the restoration.

167—K-35 Single-Cylinder, Two Cycle Model Airplane Engine, designed and built by Fred Kunze, Arizona, 1975. L=8", W=4", H=5"

Fred constructed and sold 39 of his model K-35 airplane engine. It has a 13/16 inch bore, 3/4 inch stroke, and burns methanol on glow ignition. It swings a 12-6 propeller over 8, 000 revolutions per minute.

168—Supercharged V-8 Racing Engine, designed and built by James Weber, Riverton, Wyoming, 2004.

Closely resembling the Chrysler 300 ‘Hemi’ from the early 60s this 1/3-scale model has a 1.0 inch bore and .900 inch stroke for a total displacement of 5.65 cubic inches. The engine burns gasoline or methanol (methyl alcohol) on dual electronic spark ignition and incorporates a two-stage pressurized dry-sump lubrication system. His custom designed Roots type sliding-vane supercharger with dual carburetors pushes the engine speed to 12,000 revolutions per minute.

James spent 5 years in the design and development of this engine and it is machined entirely from aircraft grade aluminum and steel bar stock. He is a self-taught machinist who honed his skills and techniques within his home machine shop. His quest is to educate and encourage others to learn machining and enter into the world of miniature engineering.  Visit his site or contact him at: www.weberprecision.com

172—Vega 50 T Two-Cylinder, Opposed Model Airplane Engine, manufactured by J.C. Harbone, England, 1980. L=7", W=7", H=5".

The valves, lifters, and pushrods are integral within the finned portion of the cylinders giving it the appearance of a 2-cycle engine. In reality it is an 8.5 cc four-cycle, side-valve (or flat-head) two cylinder aircraft engine that burns methanol (methyl alcohol) on glow ignition. The valves are positioned parallel to and behind the cylinder rather than above the cylinder and inside the heads.

174—Single-Cylinder, Air-Cooled, Four Cycle OHV Engine, United Kingdom, builder unknown, date unknown. L=5", W=12", H=9".

 The striking features of this engine are the complexity of the carburetor and the use of only one threaded stud to mount both the intake and exhaust manifold. The crankcase is filled with motor oil for internal splash lubrication; however the unusual overhead rocker and valve assembly must be manually lubricated before operation. It burns gasoline on spark ignition and the large Bosch spark plug indicates it may have been built in the early 1920s or 30s.

175—Three-Cylinder, Air-Cooled, Radial Model Airplane Engine, United Kingdom, Builder unknown, date unknown. L=5", W=12", W=9", Weight = 7 lb.

This radial engine features a single rocker box that houses both the intake and exhaust rockers and uses only one large tube to enclose both pushrods. It has a bore of approximately 1 inch and a stroke of 1 inch for a total displacement of about 2.35 cubic inches. It runs on a home made electronic spark ignition and burns gasoline or methanol with oil mixed in for lubrication.

178—Hawk 40, Single Cylinder, Air-Cooled Aircraft Engine, designed and built by G. Punter, Australia, 1976

Mr. Punter made his own molds and die cast the parts for this air-cooled aircraft engine. Die casting differs from sand casting in that the molds are made of steel and the molten metal is injected into the molds under high pressure. He built only four of these engines between 1976 and 1980 and each took approximately 150 hours to complete; this does not include the dies for casting. The first engine took over 400 hours from design to a working engine. It has a 7/8 inch bore, 11/16 inch stroke, weighs about 14 ounces and burns methanol on glow ignition.

179—“Water Witch” Single-Cylinder Marine Engine, built by Dick Pretel, California, circa 1983.

Dick’s passion was racing model boats and when it came to building his own engine he started with a set of “Water Witch” castings. Unhappy with the Westbury design he made several engineering changes, which include a custom machined hollow sleeve that he sealed to the cylinder so water could be circulated through it for better cooling. Another innovation is his uniquely machined engine mount that doubles as a high-capacity oil reservoir. Finally he machined a light-weight aluminum connecting rod and piston that was engineered to increase compression. It burns gasoline on spark ignition and it is the first model engine Pretel built.   

180—“Gannet” Single-Cylinder, Water-Cooled Marine Engine, built by Gannet Engines, England, 1960s, modified by Dick Petrel, California 1997

Dick Pretel’s demand for more performance from his model racing boats led him to several modifications to this popular English built marine engine. He designed and constructed a light weight aluminum connecting rod and developed a new piston to increase compression. His newly designed head included 4 valves and an extra exhaust pipe for better breathing and the carburetor was extended on a riser for better fuel efficiency. Increased performance means increased heat, so Dick hollowed out the head for water cooling to circumvent the increases in temperature.                                  

181—“KEN”, Single Cylinder, Air-Cooled Marine Engine, designed by Ken Brennerman Oakland CA 1938, built by Dick Pretel, 2003

From approximately six sets of castings made by Ken Brennerman in the mid 30's this is the only known surviving engine. A set of partially machined castings was found at a garage sale in California in 2002 and eventually ended up with Dick Pretel. Aware of Ken Brennerman and the history of his engine, Dick decided to complete the castings to represent the original but incorporate more modern engineering and machining techniques. This single-cylinder overhead valve engine burns gasoline on spark ignition.

185—Schillings 6-Cylinder, In-line DOHC Engine, designed by Hubert Schillings, built by Rolf Luther 1998

Hubert Schillings designed several miniature engines from 1970 to 1980. Configurations vary from 1-cylinder aircraft engines to 2-, 3-, 4-, 6- and 8-cylinder V-type and inline engines for both aircraft and automobiles. Most of his engines are machined from aluminum bar stock (ingot).

This 6-cylinder Inline Dual Overhead Cam (DOHC) design has cylinders laid out in a straight line with two camshafts that operate the valves. One camshaft operates the intake valves and the other camshaft operates the exhaust valves, thus the description “dual overhead cams.”

Typically, Schillings used belts to drive the cams rather than gears, but most unusual about this model is the use of spark ignition.  It is believed that Rolf Luther completed only three or four of these inline engines and this is the only example known to have spark ignition.

186—Wasp Jr., Single-Cylinder Model Airplane Engine, designed and built by Bruce Satra, Vernal UT, 2000

Bruce Satra of Vernal Engineering produces a very popular casting kit for the 1/6-scale Pratt Whitney Wasp Jr. Radial engine. In this example he combined one of the Wasp cylinder assemblies to a crankcase he machined from billet to produce this single-cylinder Wasp Jr. engine. It is designed to burn gasoline or methanol on spark ignition.

187—100cc Two-Cylinder, Two-Cycle, Opposed Aircraft Engine, Designer/Builder Unknown, Germany, 1985. L=15", W=16", H=22"

Commercially available cylinders, possibly from a motorcycle were used to produce this aircraft engine. The Tilloston carburetor is designed for gasoline, but the spark plug holes were adapted for model engine glow plugs, indicative of a methanol burning engine. The crankcase appears to be cast from aluminum, but quite possibly was machined from billet material. The engine was built in Germany in 1985, but the designer and builder are unknown.

192—Edwards FA90-3 3-Cylinder Radial Aircraft Engine, designed and built by Forest Edwards, California, 1981. L=8", W=8", H=9", Weight = 1 lb-12 oz

This is Forest Edwards’ first home-made model airplane engine. He utilized the cylinder heads and cams from three Saito FA-30 single cylinder model airplane engines to produce this radial. All other components were machined from bar stock. It burns methanol with castor oil mixed in, but the exposed rocker arms required manual lubrication before operation. Its performance was good with smooth running characteristics throughout the full operating range of speeds.

Before completing this engine Edwards had already produced several drawings and begun to fabricate a much larger 5-cylinder radial that he would machine entirely from bar stock. Over the next 12 years he produced 30 five-cylinder, spark ignition radial engines.

193—1/4 Scale Caminez 4-Cylinder Radial Aircraft Engine, designed and built by Wally Warner, MI, 2007. L=10", W=8", H=9", Weight = 7 lb-5 oz

The full-size engine was developed and patented by Harold Caminez in the mid 20's. The early engines were advertised as producing 150 hp at 1200 rpm, however by the time the engine was awarded the Engine Approved Certificate in June 1928, it was rated at 120 hp at 960 rpm. Boeing built two Model 81 trainers to use the Caminez engine and the first one flew in March of 1928. Apparently the engine simply didn’t stand up in an operational environment and other manufacturers dropped the Caminez as an option for their aircraft. One report states the engine vibrated excessively and future plans to market the engine were abandoned in 1929. Wally Warner started this model project in 1982 and finally found the opportunity to finish it in 2007.

194—JENNO 14 Single-Cylinder Model Airplane Engine, designed and built by Larry Jenno, NV, 1943. L=3", W=2", H=3", Weight = 8 oz

Larry Jenno is well known for his reproduction “old-timer” spark ignition engines from the early 40s and 50s, but his first home-made  engine is this .14 cu. in., single-cylinder, two-cycle model airplane engine. He carved the patterns from wood and cast the crankcase, cylinder and backplate from aluminum in his home machine shop.  It runs on spark ignition and burns methanol (methyl alcohol) with caster oil mixed in for lubrication. This is the only example of the Jenno14 that he produced.

196—ROSS Two-Cylinder, Two-Cycle Target Drone Engine, designed and built  by Lou Ross, AZ, 1973

In the early 70's, Lou Ross designed and developed this large 3.5 cubic inch opposed twin for possible use as a target drone engine for military applications. It burns methanol on glow ignition with castor oil mixed in for lubrication. His unique style of casting the crankcase integral with the cylinders is typical of his line of smaller model airplane engines that are well known among the collectors, however, only a few examples of these larger drone engines exist today. 

197—ROSS Four-Cylinder, Two-Cycle, Target Drone Engine, designed and built  by Lou Ross, AZ, 1972

In the early 70s Lou Ross designed and developed a couple of large multi-cylinder engines for military applications as target drone power plants. This is a 7.0 cubic inch opposed four cylinder, two-cycle designed to burn methanol on glow ignition. The glow ignition eliminates the need for points, coils, and heavy batteries allowing the drone to carry more fuel for long distance flight. His 3.5 cubic inch two-cylinder drone engine is most desirable for smaller target drones and high speeds. He cast the crankcase integral with the cylinders in these engines, which is typical of his much smaller model airplane engines. His line of model airplane engines is highly collectible today; however, only a few examples of these large drone engines were produced. 

198—KING “T85”  Two-Cylinder, Four-Cycle,  Air-Cooled Engine, designed and built by Stephen J. King, FL, 2005. L=10", W=6", H=7", Weight = 5 lb 

Mr. King designed this two-cylinder engine with an open crankcase for visual effect while the engine is operating. It burns gasoline on spark ignition and utilizes a pressurized oil system to lubricate the crank, rod, and cam bearings. Open rockers on top require manual lubrication. It has a bore of 19 mm and a stroke of 15 mm and burns regular gasoline on electronic spark ignition. The tiny float bowls under the carburetors provide stability to the constant stream of fuel entering the carburetors. Other unique accessories include a starter and a small generator.

200—KING “741” Seven-Cylinder, Two-Cycle, Air-Cooled Radial Airplane Engine, designed and built by Stephen J. King, FL, 2007. L=8", W=8", H=9", Weight = 6 lb-5 oz

Similar in appearance to the “Gnome” rotary engines of WWI, this two-cycle radial engine has mechanically driven intake valves with a single pushrod in front of each cylinder. It has a bore of .750 inch and stroke of .800 inch, incorporates a high-speed supercharger to increase crankcase pressure for fuel delivery to the cylinders. It runs on glow ignition, but unlike most two-cycle engines this one sports a dry-sump, pressure-fed oil system for internal lubrication, eliminating the need to mix oil with the fuel.

201—“RCS 400 5-Cylinder Radial Airplane Engine, designed and manufactured by Moki, Inc., Ukraine, 2007. Size=14" dia.

This 400 cc radial burns a gasoline/oil mixture on spark ignition. The unique electronic ignition utilizes a miniature high tension coil located at each spark plug. This "coil-on-plug" concept eliminates the need for a distributor since only low voltage is sent from the ignition module and is converted to high voltage at each spark plug. A magnetic sensor on the crankshaft or camshaft is used for timing the spark sequence. The engine measures about 14" in diameter, weighs 20.5 pounds (without display base) and produces 25 horsepower spinning a 40-25 propeller at 3800 rpm.

202—SATRA ‘R-5’ Model Radial Airplane Engine, designed and built by Bruce Satra, UT, 1984. L=8", W=6", H=7", Weight = 2 lb-6 oz

Intrigued by the Morton M5, Bruce considered it to be of sound design, but felt it lacked structural integrity inside. His quest to produce a more robust engine led him to this design that he dubbed the Satra R-5. The bore is .700 and stroke .625 making the total displacement 1.2 cubic inches compared to the Morton M5’s bore of .625 and stroke of .600 totaling only .920 cubic inches.  This engine burns methanol on spark ignition and turns a 15-6 propeller at 6500 revolutions per minute.  Unlike the Morton M5 Bruce utilized enclosed rocker boxes eliminating the need for manually lubricating the rocker arms before operation.

203—SATRA 0-440, 4-Cylinder Opposed Model Airplane Engine, designed and built by Bruce Satra, UT, mid 1980s. L=11", W=8", H=7"

This 0-440 differs from his first one in that it burns gasoline on spark ignition rather than methanol on glow ignition. He produced the tooling and molded the distributor cap from bakelite, just like the full-size engines With a bore of .937 and stroke of .875, its 2.4 cubic inch displacement develops in excess of 2 horsepower. It is machined entirely from aircraft grade aluminum bar stock.

204—(Upper left) .098 Vertical 2-Cylinder, 2-Cycle Aero Engine, designed and fabricated by John Swartzwelder, WA, mid 1970's. Weight = 8 oz

While working in the "wind tunnel" model shop at Boeing, John fabricated several small multi-cylinder aircraft engines from commercially available Cox .049, .020, and .010 cc model airplane engines. Some were simply geared together via a common propeller shaft and custom engine mount, while others required engineering sophisticated crankcases with specially designed crankshafts. They burn methanol (methyl alcohol) with castor oil mixed in for lubrication.

205—(Lower left) .098 Opposed 2-Cylinder, 2-Cycle Aero Engine, designed and fabricated by John Swartzwelder, WA, mid 1970's

206—(Middle, upper row) .040 Opposed 2-Cylinder, 2-Cycle Aero Engine, designed and fabricated by John Swartzwelder, WA, mid 1970's

207—(Far right) .020 Opposed 2-Cylinder, 2-Cycle Aero Engine, designed and fabricated by John Swartzwelder, WA, mid 1970's.

208—Springfield A.1 Single-cylinder, Two-cycle Model Engine, designed and fabricated by Roy E. McAdams, Springfield, OH, circa 1919. L=4.75", W=4", H=4.75" (w/o glow plug), Base=6" x 6", Weight = 8 oz.

McAdams offered the A-1 in kit form or completely assembled and ready to run. Two other variations offered were an opposed 2-cylinder and a 5-chlinder radial. The cost for a completed A-1 was $25.00, an A-2 Twin was $75.00 and the A-5 radial was $500.00.  With a bore of 1.25" and a stroke of 1.0" the engines could be built to burn gasoline or "house gas" (natural gas) on spark ignition. This example indicates it was constructed for natural gas, which required supplemental oiling via oil-cups on the bearing journals. Typically the spark plugs were re-worked from large plugs or home built using glass tubing filled with plaster of Paris for the insulator.

Model Pratt & Whitney Engine CastingA 4-part casting for a 9-cylinder Pratt & Whitney R985 engine is displayed here so you can see some of the craftsmanship that goes into the design of an engine like this. Much of the fine machine work of the basic engine casting is covered up once the cylinders and other parts are bolted on. This assembly represents many hours of work in pattern making, casting and finished machining.

Engines added to the museum display on July 22, 2009

18—Morton M5 5-Cylinder Radial Engine, designed and built by Morton Aviation, Kearney, NB, 1949. L=7", W=15", H=6"

The M5 was originally manufactured in the 1940's and was the first miniature radial engine made for model airplanes. It was designed by Glen Morton and was based on the full-size LeBlond radial aircraft engines made in 1928. The radial engine was much more powerful and reliable than the old rotary design and was used to power large aircraft such as airliners and World War II-era bombers.

35—Cirrus 4-Cylinder, Water-cooled, In-line Model Airplane Engine, 1/6 scale model built by Merritt Zimmerman, 1980-1994. L=7", W=3", H=5".

Merritt Zimmerman produced his own castings to build (75) 1/6 scale Cirrus engines (glow ignition) between about 1980 and 1994. He sold many more castings in kit form for miniature engine builders during the same period. To differentiate  his engines from those built by others, an oval shaped embossed emblem with the name "ZH Cirrus" was bonded to the crankcase identifying those engines completed by him. The oval emblem was not sold or included in any of the kits.

Eight of the seventy five engines were water-cooled. In the water-cooled engine the cylinders are mounted within an aluminum block so water can circulate through the block (around the cylinders) and up into the head. The head is machined in one piece with internal water passages to carry water from the cylinder block into the radiator.

39—27-25 Propeller for 1/4 scale Bentley BR-2 Rotary Airplane Engine, built by Robert Cooper, Savannah, GA, 1997. L=28", W=4", H=2".

Robert Cooper laminated the wood together just as it was done in the early days of flight with the use of home made horsehide glue. Once bonded, the propeller was hand carved until each half matched. Then it was balanced by inserting weights into the center hub.

This scale model is based on the propeller used with a Bentley B2 rotary airplane engine in a World War I Sopwith Snipe airplane. It is designated a 27-25 propeller. The first number denotes the propeller's length, and the second number is its pitch (inches the propeller travels through the air per revolution without a load).

42—Otter 30 4-Cylinder In-line Boat Engine, Designed by Dr. Haydock, England, mid-1970's. L=11", W=8", H=20".

Dr. Haydock (first name unknown) designed 1-cylinder, 2-cylinder and 4-cylinder engines fro model boats. He built a handful of otter 30 cc engines from his own patterns and castings. All engines were sold as completed engines and not as kits.

The red distributor cap is fabricated from a plastic bottle cap not unlike a liquid dish-washing soap bottle. It is mounted to a movable bracket for manual timing and spark advance at higher speeds

46—JPX T240 Turbojet Model Aircraft Engine, built in France, circa 1992. L=15", W=6", H=6".

Practical gas turbine power for model aircraft became a reality when Bryan Seegers of Arizona made model aviation history in 1988. He flew what is believed to be the world's first miniature turbojet-powered aircraft

By 1992, commercially available miniature jet engines like this JPX-T240 began to appear on the market. This engine burns propane fuel and can produce up to 13 pounds of thrust. Today's model jet engine burn gasoline or jet fuel and produce several times more thrust.

The first jet full-size jet plane, a Heinkel He 778 flew in 1939. A jet engine has no propeller. It sucks in air at one end and burns it with fuel. Hot gasses blast out the other end, thrusting the aircraft forward.

58—U-22 Turbojet Model Aircraft Engine, built by Dennis Fadden, Canada, circa 1980

For many years, the idea of a functional miniature jet engine intrigued modelers. In his early years of engineering, Dennis Fadden built this model jet engine from plans that were probably from the 1950's. The model was advertised as having "real compressor and power turbine stages, 8 separate combustion chambers and an afterburner that goes in with a bang!" Supposedly, the finished engine would perform like a full-size jet engine, but it turned out to be a failure. However, this engine was probably most responsible for young engineers continuing pursuit of a functional miniature jet engine.

64—Red Wing Stationary Engine, built by Harold Beckett, Longmont, CO, circa mid-1990's. L=17", W=11", H=13"

The Red Wing stationary engines made in Red Wing, MN were commonly used to power industrial machinery and farm equipment in the early 1900's. Harold Beckett built this 1/4 scale model of the Red Wing from a casting kit. It has a bore of 1.125", a 2" stroke and burns gasoline on spark ignition. The cylinder passes through the large reservoir in the front which is filled with water for cooling. Stationary engines require manual lubrication before operation and have several oil and grease cups that require re-filling periodically while the engine is in operation.

Stationary engines run a slow speeds (500-600 rpm and rely on their massive flywheels to store the energy necessary to power machinery and equipment.

68—Jupiter 220 2-Clinder Opposed Model Airplane Engine, manufactured by Farger & Joosten, Germany, early 1980's. L=9", W=11", H=6"

These belt-driven, overhead camshaft engines (that also were available in a 1-cylinder version) are superbly engineered but quite heavy, so not practical for competitive flying. Despite the  37 cc capacity, the power output was considered low. The power could be increased with re-profiled camshafts, different plugs and added piston rings. (To re-profile means to machine a different shape to the cams to change when the intake and exhaust valves open and close.) This drastically affects the engine's performance.

Unlike its competitors, the Jupiter was entirely machined from bar tock and no castings were used. The lack of performance and added expense of machining from ingot probably created the lack of sales.

78—Miniature 3-Cylinder Radial Engine, designed and machined by Cliff Bumpus, circa 1994. L=7", W=11", H=10"

Cliff Bumpus machined the engine from bar stock (aluminum ingots). The cylinders are spaced 120° apart in a circular pattern, typical for a 3-cyinder radial configuration. The miniature runs on glow plugs rather than spark plugs. The combustion of the fuel in the engine keeps the glow plug hot between cycles, so it does not need to be regulated or powered while the engine is running like a spark plug would.

The methyl alcohol fuel is mixed with castor oil which lubricates the internal engine parts. Since castor oil is not flammable, lubrication can occur before or after combustion, depending on the design of the engine. In either case, the excess castor oil is discharged from the engine during operation.

80—3-Cylinder Radial Model Aircraft Engine, designed and built by Henry Parohl, New York, circa 1960. L=9", W=12", H=9"

In the early 1930's, Henry Parohl was setting records with his model powerboats and homemade miniature engines—two-and four-cycle singles and twins. Then he began designing more complex three- and five-cylinder radial aircraft engines. Although the radials are quite a change from his early boat engines, Parohl's building technique and style have been retained throughout his engine building career.

This 3-cylinder radial is a one-of-a-kind custom design that runs on regular gasoline and has a spark ignition.

83—Miniature 7-Cylinder Radial Engine, designed and built by Pierre Blais, Canada, 1990. L-10", W=11", H=12"

Pierre Blais' engine burns a methanol/castor oil mixture on glow ignition. The combustion of the fuel keeps the glow plug hot between cycles, so the plug does not need to be regulated or powered while the engine is running like a spark plug does.

The methanol is burned, but since the castor oil is not flammable, it is discharged in liquid form The castor oil in the fuel lubricates the internal parts before it is sent into the combustion chamber. However, the carburetor is in back and little oil reaches the cams in the front nose case. Blais solved the problem by sealing off the nose case from the crankcase and filling it with motor oil.

94—Ford Model "A" 4-Cylinder Automobile Engine, 1/5 scale replica by Profi M. E., Ukraine, 2002. L=8", W=6", H=7"

This scale replica of the 4-cycle, water-cooled engine in the famous Ford Model "A" automobile of 1928 has a bore of .675" and a stroke if .827". Total displacement is .30 cubic inches.

Castings were made for the crankcase, head and oil pan, and bar stock was machined for the crankshaft and camshaft. The engine will burn gasoline or methanol on spark ignition, and it contains oil in the oil pan for lubrication. Internal lubrication is a splash system that relies on the crankshaft to splash (sling) the oil within the crankcase when it rotates.

The engine was custom manufactured for an American automobile buff. Paul Knapp designed and fabricated the spark plugs.

Approximately 25 Model "A" engine replicas were produced in this "factory stock" configuration, a copy of the original factory engine as sold in the Model "A". Several months after the introduction of this model engine, approximately 25 modified "Hotrod" versions were produced that included a finned racing head and dual carburetors.

99—1937 Harley Davidson "Knucklehead" Motorcycle Engine, 1/4 scale model built by Replica Engines, Michigan, circa 1997. L=9", W=9" H=9"

The model is a 2-cylinder, 45° V overhead valve configuration that burns gasoline or methanol. It utilizes two oil pumps for pressurized dry sump lubrication with a small amount of oil mixed into the fuel for piston and valve lubrication. It has a .75" bore, .875" stroke and operates on spark ignition.

101—Miniature 7-Cylinder Radial Engine, designed and built by Lee Root, circa 1975. (Courtesy of Margarita and Al Root, and Rhetta and John Hopfauf)

Lee Root's engines have inspired enthusiasts, hobbyists and miniature engine builders throughout the world. Although parts of his engines appear to be castings, they were machined entirely from bar stock. Root's 7-cylinder radial was ahead of its time and more advanced than most miniature engines made today.

Root is perhaps best known for his custom designed miniature Stromberg-type carburetor with an automatic choke and accelerator pump, a dry sump lubrication system and an electric fuel  pump.

102—Chevrolet Corvette Small Block V-8 Engine, designed and built by Lee Root, Washington, 1980's. L=13", W=9", H=9". (Courtesy of Margarita and Al Root, and Rhetta and John Hopfauf.)

Lee Root machined 7075 aircraft grade aluminum to produce the crankcase, heads, rods and pistons, and there are no castings used in the engine. The cylinder liners are cast iron, the crankshaft and cam are heat-treated 4340 steel. He used a full-size corvette racing cam for the cam profiles.

Construction of scale rocker arms proved to be the greatest challenge; however, he conceded the carburetor and electronic ignition were problem areas as well. Lee developed an electronic balancer to balance the engine and preliminary tests showed the engine to exceed 10,000 RPM.

103—Ford Model "A" Engine, designed and built by Lee Root, Washington, circa 1980's. L=11", W=6", H=10". (Courtesy of Margarita and Al Root, and Rhetta and John Hopfauf.)

Lee Root produced this scale replica of the four-cylinder, water-cooled engine used in the famous Ford Model "A" automobile of 1928. The engine is machined from 7075 aircraft grade aluminum and clear anodized for the color and finish. He never made drawings for his engines, but always worked from sketches and notes plus his imagination. It is a 4-cylinder, water-cooled, side valve (the valves are located in the crankcase next to the cylinders) engine with a 180° crankshaft. The model engine burns gasoline on spark ignition and supports and internal pressurized oiling system. There are no castings used in this engine.

104—The "Root Special" DOHC 4-Cylinder Racing Engine, designed and built by Lee Root, Washington, 1980's. L=11", W=8", H=8". (Courtesy of Margarita and Al Root, and Rhetta and John Hopfauf.)

Lee Root needed a small 4-cylinder engine to test a miniature electronic throttle-body fuel injection system he was developing. he worked from his imagination and produced no drawings for this engine. His water-cooled race engine has a bore of .875" and a stroke of .75" for a total displacement of 1.8 cubic inches. It burns gasoline for fuel, utilizes pressure lubrication and sports his highly successful, electronic throttle-body fuel injection on spark ignition.

The "Root Special" is machined entirely from 7075 aluminum bar stock and utilizes no castings. The aluminum parts were clear anodized to produce the color and finish. The second photo shows the side of the engine featuring Lee's unique fuel injection system.

107—5-Cylinder Radial Model Aircraft Engine, designed and built by Henry Parohl, New York, circa 1960. L=11", W=10", H=9"

Most of Henry Parohl's engines incorporated gravity fed lubrication systems. Prior to running the engine, the operator would fill the small, transparent reservoir ahead of the number one (top) cylinder with motor oil. Then, with its spark ignition turned on, the engine would run on regular gasoline. The oil would slowly feed from the reservoir into the engine for lubrication.

This model is believed to be the only 5-cylinder radial engine that Parohl designed and built. It is not known if Parohl worked from drawings or sketches, but none have been located.

117—Erickson FE200 (MCC) Prototype Migrating Combustion Chamber Engine, manufactured by Erickson Motors, Indiana, circa 1993. L=9", W=8", H=7".

This engine has a square piston inside a square cylinder. Both migrate about the crankcase as it rotates. The piston slides up and down inside the cylinder as it slides left to right inside the crankcase.

The migrating combustion chamber allows this unique engine to take full advantage of the gas expansion after combustion. By the time the exhaust is released to the atmosphere it has expanded to its fullest and is almost completely depleted of pressure. The exhaust temperature is not much higher than ambient air.

This 200 cc prototype was CNC machined from bar stock. Later production engines were made smaller (120 cc) and made from castings.

See http://www.ericksonmotors.com/mccsim.htm for an animation and diagrams as to how the MMC engine works. It is much easier to understand how it works after you see the animation.

119—Schillings 6-Cylinder Opposed DOHC Miniature Engine, designed and built by Hubert Schillings, Germany, circa 1975. L=9", W=9", H=7".

Hubert Schillings designed several miniature engines from 1970 to 1980. Configurations vary from 1-cylinder aircraft engines to 2-, 3-, 4-, 6- and 8-cylinder V-type engines for both aircraft and automobiles. Most of his engines are machined from aluminum bar stock (ingot).

129—Gannet Single-Cylinder Four-Cycle Model Airplane Engine, manufactured by Gannet Engineering, England, 1960's. L=8", W=7", H=7".

It is estimated that only about twenty air-cooled model airplane engines were built by Gannet Engineering and this is one of only a few equipped with a magneto. It burns gasoline with a little oil mixed in for piston and valve lubrication, but the open rocker arms required manual lubrication before operation. The cylindrical reservoir in the front slowly feeds oil to the internal components while the crankshaft is turning.

137—Magnum 182 V-Twin Model Airplane Engine, manufactured in England, circa 1980's. L=9", W=10", H=7".

Peter Roffe and Brian Stammer developed the Magnum engines in the early 1980's. They combined two cylinder assemblies from their single-cylinder 91S to make this 90° V-twin 182. The 27 mm bore and 26 mm stroke equal about 15cc per cylinder with a total displacement of almost 30 cc. Magnum engines typically burned methanol on glow ignition, but this model utilizes spark ignition and sports a rare built-in electric starter.

138—Magnum 273 3-Cylinder Radial Model Airplane Engine, manufactured in England, circa 1980's. L=20", W=9", H=9".

The Magnum 91S was a single-cylinder, four-cycle, air-cooled model airplane engine that burned methanol on glow ignition. They adapted three of their 91S cylinder assemblies to a common crankcase to produce this three-cylinder radial 273 A few of these radials were converted to burn methanol on spark ignition by utilizing spark plugs and adding a camshaft driven distributor in back. The distributor, which supports a distributor cap provided by Bruce Satra (Utah) was mounted to a movable plate to provide manual adjustment for spark timing.

149—Olds Stationary Engine, 1/2 scale model built by Everett Kroll, California, 1990's. Castings by Paul Briesch. L=16", W=13", H=14".

Everett machined and fabricated all of the components necessary to complete a running engine. it burns gasoline with a little oil mixed in for upper-end (piston and valve) lubrication. Typical of most stationary engines is that manual lubrication is required on the moving parts before operation, and periodic lubrication.

Olds hopper-cooled (water reservoir around the cylinder) stationary engine first appeared about 1907 and, except for the open hopper, all of the details for these "A" type engines remained much the same. The smaller 2 HP models could be supplied with a small hand truck (cart) for portability while the larger engines required horse drawn trucks. Some of the "A" series engines were air-cooled and featured a cooling fan. Special attention was given to the cooling system—closely spaced fins and a special air shroud forced air completely around the cylinder.

 

157—Trimble Air-Cooled Prototype Single-Cylinder Engine, designed and built by George Trimble, Arizona, 1958. L=7", W=3", H=5".

George Trimble's first engine is this air-cooled, four-cycle single that burns gasoline on spark ignition. The ventilated crankcase is filled with oil for splash lubrication, but the exposed rockers required manual lubrication before operating the engine.

George attributed its poor performance to his attempt to make his own piston rings. it had poor compression and burned a lot of oil, which led him in pursuit of a mathematical formula for making the "perfect piston ring." the results of his efforts were published as a construction article in Strictly IC magazine entitled "How to Make Piston Rings." This engine served as a test platform through out his developmental trials to produce piston rings that would seat within minutes of starting an engine.

184—TechnoPower 5-Cylinder Radial Prototype Engine, Designed and built by Wally Warner, Illinois, 1983.

This prototype marked the beginning of a new line of 1/4 scale size engine to power large model aircraft. it is about 13" in diameter with a bore of 1.100" and a stroke of 1.00". It was designed to burn methanol on spark ignition and has two shafts extending from the rear gear case. One is for the distributor and the other is intended for a starter.

199—Bandicoot Experimental Model Airplane Engine, by Rich Wiley, Missouri, Date Unknown.

Rich Wiley produced this test engine to determine the performance advantages (or disadvantages) of a highly over-square engine; that is, one with a very short stroke compared to the bore of the engine. It has a bore of 1.160" and a stroke of only .580", yielding a total displacement of .609 cubic inches. The porting arrangement of four transfers (two boost and two exhaust) was chosen in an attempt to shorten the distance the fuel charge needed to travel. The twin rotary valve arrangement was necessary because the crank pin was so close to the centerline of the shaft that it would not allow for a large enough passage hole through the shaft for the fuel. The hole was bored eccentric away from the crank pinto help compensate for this condition. After extensive testing, Rich determined there was not enough advantage to pursue it any further This engine turned its 9-6 propeller up to 14,5000 RPM.

213—Babcock Jr. Gas Powered Micro Rail Mite Racer, designed and built by John D. Ellis, New Jersey, 2009. L=4.5", W=3", H=2".

John Ellis produced this miniature rail racer as a tribute to the late John Babcock, who was one of the most colorful builders and model racers in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. The top and pan are CNC machined from 2024 billet aluminum and mirror polished. The gas tank is 360 brass, the engine mount is naval bronze and the wheels and engine straps are 70075-T6 aluminum. It is powered by a Cox .010 that is bevel geared (3:1 ratio for torque) to a ring gear that is silver brazed to an h-13 form-ground rear axel. The 100% functional rail guides sport four Timken stainless ball bearings.

219—Ferrari V-12 Model Auto Engine, 1/4 scale, built by Bennie Vreeman, Netherlands, 2009. L=12", W=8", H=6".

Jeron Classic Motors began to develop a series of miniature 1/4 scale cars and engines in the mid-1990's. Only a few of the cars were sold before the company closed its doors forever and all remaining inventory was sold at auction. Twelve engines were built from the inventory parts by Bennie Vreeman in the Netherlands. One engine was a running model that burned methanol on glow ignition, while the remaining eleven were built for display only. This engine was one of the non-running models but was converted to a running model in 2009 for the Miniature Engineering Museum. It burns methanol on glow ignition and is equipped with two oil pumps for dry sump lubrication. All six carburetors function and are linked together for smooth operation.

220—Suevia 252 Single-Cylinder Model Airplane Engine, designed and built in W. Germany, 1980's. L=6", W=3.5", H=6". (Courtesy of Dale Jordan.)

This engine is reported to be an efficient glow ignition engine that utilizes Schnurele-scavenge porting. Its displacement is 1.5 cubic inches. It produces 3 HP at 11,000 RPM and swings a 14-7.5 propeller.

221—Anderson Spitfire .65 Model Airplane Engine, built by Marvin Miller (Courtesy of Dale Jordan). Weight: 2 lb.

222—Super Cyclone 60 Model Airplane Engine in original box, reproduced by Larry Jenno, Nevada (Courtesy of Dale Jordan), Weight: 2 lb.

228—Two-Cylinder Vertical Steam Engine, built by Alphonse C. Vassallo, California, 1968. (Courtesy of Cherise Vassallo, Ingrid Vassallo, Andre Vassallo). L=8.5", W=5", H=6". Weight: 4.5 lb.

Stuart Models provided the castings for this model D10 vertical steam engine. It is well suited for stationary and marine work and can achieve speeds of 2000 RPM. Mr. Vassallo machined every part to complete this highly modified version, which incorporates his own custom-designed reversing mechanism. Another personal touch is his use of chrome plating on the fittings, valves, tubing, flanges and other accessory components.

229—Two-Cylinder Flame Licker Engine, built by Alphonse C. Vassallo, California, 1968. (Courtesy of Cherise Vassallo, Ingrid Vassallo, Andre Vassallo). L=12", W=6.5", H=3.5". Weight: 7 lb.

These engines are variously called vacuum, flame-licker or flame-gulper engines and work by drawing hot gasses or a flame into a cylinder to be cooled. Admission of the hot flame into the cylinder is controlled by a valve. There is a power stroke every revolution. On the downward stroke of the piston, the valve is open and flame is drawn into the cylinder. Just before the bottom of the stroke the valve is closed and the resulting drop in pressure draws back the piston for the power stroke. One problem to be found in running these engines is that of back-pressure at the end of the power stroke. it is important to construct the exhaust valve so that it can easily lift and release any back-pressure.

230—Two-Cylinder, Reversible Stirling Cycle Engine, built by Alphonse C. Vassallo, California, 1971. (Courtesy of Cherise Vassallo, Ingrid Vassallo, Andre Vassallo). L=21", W=8", H=7". Weight: 12 lb.

A Stirling engine is a device that converts heat energy into mechanical power by alternating compressing and expanding a fixed quantity of air (or other gas) at different temperatures. Intrigued by the concept, Mr. Vassallo designed and built this horizontal twin inline Stirling engine. It sports custom made burners at the top of the cylinders and his custom-designed reversing mechanism to control the direction of the output shaft. Shortly after completion, Al tested the engine in a model boat a Spreckles Lake in golden Gate Park, San Francisco, CA. The success of this engine led him to design and develop several other Stirling cycle engines.

231—Two-Cylinder Opposed Model Airplane Engine, built by Alphonse C. Vassallo, California, 1985. (Courtesy of Cherise Vassallo, Ingrid Vassallo, Andre Vassallo). L=11", W=10", H=7.7". Weight: 6.5 lb.

This two-cylinder, four-cycle engine is completely machined from steel and aluminum bar stock, including Al's custom-designed carburetor. It has a bore of 1 inch and a stroke of 1 inch and burns methanol on glow ignition. The enclosed rocker arms are lubricated by the fuel/air mixture; hoverer, the gear case in back required grease packing or manual lubrication. Al flew several variations of his airplane engines in numerous scratch-built aircraft he produced.

232—Cylindrical Cam Stirling Engine, built by Alphonse C. Vassallo, California, 1996. (Courtesy of Cherise Vassallo, Ingrid Vassallo, Andre Vassallo). L=23", W=7", H=8". Weight: 17 lb.

The axial engine (also called cam, swashplate or barrel engine) is a type of reciprocating engine that replaces the common crankshaft with a circular plate. The pistons press against the plate in sequence, forcing it to rotate around its center. in Al's engine, the plate has a channel machined around its circumference to capture ball bearings attached to shafts so the reciprocating pistons not only push, but also pull against the cam, forcing it to rotate around its center. The key advantage of the design is that the cylinders are arranged in parallel around the edge of the cam resulting in a very compact cylindrical shaped engine.

Mr. Vassallo was awarded US Patent # 6,701,709 for his "Cylindrical Cam Stirling Engine Drive" in 2004.

233—V-Four Stirling Cycle Engine, built by Alphonse C. Vassallo, California, 1994. (Courtesy of Cherise Vassallo, Ingrid Vassallo, Andre Vassallo). L=13", W=16", H=11". Weight: 20 lb.

Among the numerous Stirling cycle engines Al designed and built is this large V-4 workhorse that he attached to a small generator and water pump. It operates on propane gas that is delivered to special custom-built burners designed to direct as much heat to the heads as possible, then the pump circulates water to cool the cylinders, which increases the power output and efficiency. It isn't known if Al had a purpose for this engine or if he was just experimenting, but he displayed and demonstrated its function at several of the local model engine shows and meetings.

234—Cylindrical Rotary Engine, built by Alphonse C. Vassallo, California, 1973. (Courtesy of Cherise Vassallo, Ingrid Vassallo, Andre Vassallo). L=7", W=5", H=3.5". Weight: 5 lb.

Al experimented with many new "proof-of-concept" engine designs. Internally, this engine resembles a positive-flow (vane type) rotary pump similar in design to a water pump. Al designed a spring-loaded, four-vane rotor, which he placed within a highly modified combustion chamber. Then he carefully positioned the carburetor and exhaust manifold and strategically installed the spark plug for proper ignition The ignition points and adjustable timer assembly are mounted on the back of the engine. Although never completed, it was designed to burn gasoline with oil mixed in for lubrication.

235—5-Cylinder Radial Model Airplane Engine, built by Alphonse C. Vassallo, California, 1982. (Courtesy of Cherise Vassallo, Ingrid Vassallo, Andre Vassallo). L=17", W=13", H=14". Weight: 21 lb.

It took Al about a year to design and build this 5-cylinder radial engine including the carburetor, which customarily incorporates a built-in choke mechanism. It is completely machined from aluminum and steel bar stock and burns methanol with castor oil mixed in for lubrication. The exposed rocker arms require manual lubrication before operation. Unlike typical radial engines, Al designed this one over-square, which means the bore is larger than the length of the stroke, using a 1.25" bore and a 1.00" stroke. Generally, over-square engines are lighter and shorter (smaller in diameter) and develop more power for their compact size.

Engines added to the display on August 28, 2011

 08—Challenger V8 Prototype Engine, designed and built by Bachtold, Thoms and Dettrick, Illinois, mid-1960s. L=12", W=12", H=14", Weight: 25 lbs-0z

Machinist Alf Bachtold began making this engine but needed help to complete it.  He formed a loose partnership with pattern maker Clayton Thoms and a designer named Dettrick (first name unknown). Half-way through the project, the three men disagreed on how they would share profits from engine sales, so the partnership ended.  Bachtold bought out the other two and gave the prototype to Thoms.

The prototype has castings from the head down that remained part of the final design. The top end parts were machined by Bachtold from solid metal. The timing gear cover has the letters T/B cast into it, denoting Thoms and Bachtold.

In 1968, Emile Damotte, Lancer Engineering, Illinois, purchased the patterns and tooling from Bachtold.  He completed the patterns and castings for the head, intake and exhaust manifolds, and then he began to sell casting kits through Lancer Engineering.

Challenger V8—Although not yet a part of the Craftsmanship Museum's display in Carlsbad, Paul Knapp built this Challenger V8. It is a good example of the many engines that have been produced over the years from the patterns produced based on the prototype engine shown above. This one fires with the flip of the flywheel and runs beautifully. To see video of it being run at a model engineering show in Oregon, CLICK HERE. You will note that the castings used in the production kits give a more authentic look to the engine compared to the billet machined prototype above.

12—3-Cylinder Radial Model Airplane Engine, designed and built by 3W Engines, Germany, circa 1990

This spark-ignition 2-cycle engine is composed of three single-cylinder engines geared together within one common crankcase. It has a bore of 1.6", a stroke of 1.1" (6.3 cu in total), weighs 10.1 pounds, and will produce 11 horsepower spinning a 34 x 26 propeller at 4,500 revolutions per minute. It burns a gas/oil mixture on electronic spark ignition. 3W received a patent on this radial engine in 1997.

L=15", W=12", H=14", Weight: 14 lbs-4oz w/ stand

13—Robarts R780 7-Cylinder Radial Engine, designed and built by Bob Walker, Robarts Manufacturing, Illinois, 1993. L=10", W=10", H=11"

Bob Walker modeled this engine after the Jacobs R755 commonly used in three aircraft: the Beech Stagger Wing, Cessna 195 and Cessna UC-78 Bobcat (nicknamed the “Bamboo Bomber” because its airframe was fabricated from wood).

This engine has a bore of 1.125 inches (cylinder bore or piston diameter), a stroke of 1.125 inches (length the moves up and down) with a total displacement of 7.8 cubic inches (volume displaced by all cylinders added together). It weighs 7.65 pounds and burns methanol on glow ignition. Oil is mixed in with the fuel for lubrication.

17—Curtiss OX-5 V8 Airplane Engine, 1/4-scale model built by Replica Engines, Michigan, 1995.  L=14" W=8", H=10", Weight=12 lbs-2oz

This is a miniature copy of the Curtiss OX-5 water-cooled V8 used in the standard Curtiss J.N. “Jenny” aircraft. When the United States entered World War I in 1917, the aircraft was produced in great numbers and was used to train almost 95 percent of the U.S. and Canadian pilots.

The original engine weighed approximately 320 pounds and produced a maximum 90 horsepower..."on a good day."

26—Cox .75 Radial Aircraft Engine, designed and built by Paul Daniels, Missouri, 1980s. L=7", W=8", H=9", Weight=7lbs-8oz

Paul Daniels called his creation the "Cox .75" since it consists of five Cox .15 cubic-inch engines geared together inside his custom-machined housing.  The gears are located behind the front cover and must be lubricated manually before running the engine. (Gears can be seen in the second photo.)  In the back is a throttle controlled carburetor that regulates the engine’s speed (revolutions per minute).

 74—Eldon I 2636 Prototype 6-Cylinder In-Line Boat Motor, designed and built by Eldon Dwyer, New Mexico, early 1980s. L=12", W=5", H=5"

Eldon Dwyer designed this two-cycle, water-cooled engine to power his model hydroplane.  This prototype is machined from bar stock except for the cylinder and head assembles.  These he acquired from K&B Engines, Lake Havasu, Arizona.

 

115- Micro Diesel Display (includes #115, 116, 135, 253, and 274), Valentine Miniature and Micro Diesel Model Engines, by Chris and Ronald Valentine, FL 1980s

Ronald Valentine is known worldwide for his craftsmanship and miniature and micro diesel engines. His goal is to design and build the smallest operational diesel engine in the world. The Nano Bee (left front) measures merely 7/8 of an inch long with a bore and stroke of only 2mm making the total displacement only .006cc or .00037 cu in. His brother Chris exhibited his skill  in machining when he produced this Nano Bee in Ronald’s shop. Under Ron’s guidance Chris machined this one from aluminum and steel bar stock, with some tolerances held to one ten-thousandth of an inch. This tiny engine will spin a 1-1/4 X 1 inch aluminum propeller up to 12,800 revolutions per minute. (See second photo.)

(NOTE: The two small diesel 1-cylinder engines #115 and #116 and 3-cylinder #135 are shown individually in a previous donation above. More on #135, 253 and 274 can be found in order below.)

150—International Harvester Stationary Engine, model built by Everett Kroll, CA, 1990s Casting Kit by M and E Products, SC, 1995

Mike Burns of M & E Products in Simpsonville, SC provided a pre-machined casting kit for this ¼-scale model of the International Harvester hopper-cooled stationary engine. This is Everett Kroll’s rendition from that kit; he constructed it in the mid to late 90's.

151—International Harvester Stationary Engine, model built by Everett Kroll, CA, 1990s. Casting Kit by M & E Products, SC, 1995

Mike Burns of M & E Products in Simpsonville SC provided a pre-machined casting kit for this ¼-scale model of the International Harvester screen-cooled stationary engine. Everett Kroll constructed this model in the late 90s. Rather than use a traditional closed radiator, this type of cooling involves allowing the hot water to run down a mesh screen allowing evaporation to cool it before it is collected in the tank at the bottom and re-pumped through the engine.

153—(Serial #101) Micro Dooling 61, designed and built by John D. Ellis, MI, 1980,s

In 1986 John began to design and build 1/3-scale models of the Dooling Brother’s “F” car as a tribute to his Father who produced the casting dies for the original Dooling “F” cars in the 1940’s. John’s intent was to purchase Cox .020 engines for his completed cars but the project took so long that when he was finally ready the Cox engines were no longer available.  

After much effort to get small engines produced he decided to take on the project of tooling and casting his own engines. He chose the Dooling 61 since it was one of the engines used in the original tether cars. This miniature is exactly 1/3-scale, burns methanol on spark ignition, and it turns 38,200 revolutions per minute.

Note the size of the US Quarter Dollar coin used as a stand to get a reference as to how small this engine is. (A quarter is about the same size as a Euro, or about .95" or 24.1mm. 

165—Fadden Twin Model Airplane Engine, designed and built by Dennis Fadden, Canada, 2000

Dennis Fadden used Bruce Satra’s (Morton) cylinder castings, carburetor, and distributor to produce this two cylinder model airplane engine. All other components were machined from aluminum and steel bar stock and brass tubing.

Courtesy of Dennis Fadden

170—(SN B7-151) Technopower 7-Cylinder Radial Airplane Engine, manufactured by Technopower Engines, IL, circa 1980’s. L=7", W=8", H-7", Weight=2 lb-8 oz

Courtesy of Greg Allen

190—Handt 5-Cylinder Radial Aircraft Engine, designed and built by Erich Handt, Germany, 1971

Erich Handt was born in 1919 and became a precision engineer’s apprentice at the early age of 17. After the war in 1945 he took a job in aviation technology and began building and flying model aircraft.

He machined and constructed his first two-cycle engine in 1967 and his first successful four-cycle engine in 1971. The cams on his four-cycle were driven by a belt he modified from a dental tool. Stimulated by the success of his first four-cycle he became the first four-cycle engine manufacturer in the Federal Republic of Germany to produce a miniature series of model engines.  

This unusual design exhibits exposed rocker arms and a cam ring that functions outside of the crank case housing. These components require thorough lubrication before operation.

191—Handt, 3-Cylinder Radial Aircraft Engine, designed and built by Erich Handt, Germany, 1971

Erich Handt was born in 1919 and became a precision engineer’s apprentice at the early age of 17. After the war in 1945 he took a job in aviation technology and began building and flying model aircraft.

He machined and constructed his first two-cycle engine in 1967 and his first successful four-cycle engine in 1971. The cams on his four-cycle were driven by a belt he modified from a dental tool. Stimulated by the success of his first four-cycle he became the first four-cycle engine manufacturer in the Federal Republic of Germany to produce a miniature series of model engines.  

In this design Handt used three carburetors- one for each cylinder. This requires each carburetor to be individually tuned to it’s cylinder before all are mechanically linked together. It runs on methanol with oil mixed in for lubrication.

209—ELJO Single-Cylinder Marine Engine, manufactured in England, 1960s. L=7", W=6.5", H=8", Weight= 4 lb-11 oz

This 15cc single cylinder, water cooled, model boat engine is an OHV (overhead valve) 4-stroke designed to burn gasoline on a magneto spark ignition. The crankcase, cylinder, head and flywheel are from cast aluminum, and the internal parts are machined from bar stock.  The crankcase holds oil for lower end lubrication and a small amount of oil is added to the gasoline for upper end lubrication.

210—One Cylinder 4-Cycle Model Airplane Engine, builder unknown, date unknown. L=8.5", W=5", H=6", Weight = 2 lb

The engine was produced on manual machines from aluminum and steel bar stock. It has a ¾ inch bore and a 1.0 inch stroke and burns methanol on glow ignition.

214—Warner Large Scale 5-Cylinder Radial Aircraft Engine, designed and built by Wally Warner, MI, 2009. L=9", W=11", H=12", Weight: 7 lb-2 0z

It took Wally Warner about two years to produce the molds, the aluminum castings, and to machine all the parts to make this 5-cylinder radial aircraft engine. It has a bore of 1.25 inches, a stroke of 1.4 inches, and burns gasoline on dual electronic spark ignition. It utilizes a dry sump lubrication system for the internal parts, but the rocker arms must be manually lubricated through the push-rod holes before operation. It is expected to spin a 24-10 propeller to about 5,000 revolutions per minute.

218—Schillings 4-Cylinder Inline SOHC Engine, designed and built by Hubert Schillings, Germany, early 70’s. L=12", W=8", H=6", Weight = 5 lb

 

Hubert Schillings designed several miniature engines from 1970 to 1980.  Configurations vary from 1-cylinder aircraft engines to 2-, 3-, 4-, 6- and 8-cylinder inline and V-type engines for both aircraft and automobiles. Most of his engines were machined from aluminum bar stock (billet), but a few were machined from magnesium. 

This 4-cylinder inline Single Overhead Cam (SOHC) has cylinders in a row vertical to the crankshaft.  Each cylinder has two valves (one for intake and one for exhaust)   and the single camshaft operates both the intake and exhaust valves; “thus the single overhead cam.” 

Typically, Schillings used belts to drive the cams rather than gears and operated his engines on methanol and glow ignition. It is not known how many of these 4-cylinder SOHC engines he produced.

237—Profi “DOHC 50” 4-Cylinder Inline Racing Engine, designed and built by Profi M.E. Czech Republic, 2008. L=10", W=6", H=6", Weight = 2 lb.

This 50cc engine burns methanol on glow ignition and sports a pressure lubrication system. Oil is added to the crankcase and is pumped up to the cam boxes where it drains back into the crankcase virtually lubricating all internal components.

238—Riggle Quarter-Scale Midget Race Car, designed and built by Jim Riggle, ND, mid 1980s. L=37", W=16", H=12", Weight = 31 lb 

Jim made the patterns and molds for this 4-cylinder, water-cooled, DOHC mono-block engine. It sports pressurized dry sump lubrication, 2 valves per cylinder, a peristaltic oil pump, a water pump, a fuel pump, and it burns methanol on spark ignition. The engine proved to produce 4.5 hp at 15,500 revolutions per minute on a dynamometer. He also produced the chassis and Midget car body, which provided the perfect platform to test his new engine. It has many hours of racing time and could break the rear tires free at almost any speed.

Note the detailed interior with wooden steering wheel and machined transmission. The suspension and roll cage are also designed along the lines of the popular Midget race car class that has been in competition since the 1930's or so and is still a popular event at 1/4 and 1/2 mile dirt tracks around the USA.

239—Schillings V8 DOHC Engine, designed and built by Hubert Schillings, Germany, mid 70s

Hubert Schillings designed several miniature engines from 1970 to 1980. Configurations vary from 1-cylinder aircraft engines to 2-, 3-, 4-, 6- and 8-cylinder inline and V-type engines for both aircraft and automobiles. Most of his engines were machined from aluminum bar stock (billet), but a few were cast or machined from magnesium.

This V8, Dual Overhead Cam (DOHC) engine has two rows of cylinders 90 degrees apart, and each row has two camshafts to operate the valves; one camshaft operates the intake valves and the other camshaft operates the exhaust valves. It has a cast magnesium crankcase and oil pan, and machined aluminum heads and cam boxes.

Typically, Schillings used belts to drive the cams rather than gears and operated his engines on methanol and glow ignition. It is not known how many of these V8 DOHC engines he produced.

242—“Iron Maiden” Steam Traction Engine, designed and built by Stephen J. King, FL 2008. L=18", W=8", H=7", Weight = 4 lb

The reversible double acting engine has a .4 inch bore, 1.25 inch stroke, and a 25:1 drive ratio with a clutch. It is about 14 inches long and runs on water and anything that burns clean. A small pump just ahead of the right wheel feeds oil through the bearings and crankshaft and returns to the reservoir above the pump. The crankshaft is machined from tool steel with the remaining parts machined from aluminum and stainless steel. It took Stephen over two years to build.

The design has a very modern and aggressive look compared to the taller, more traditional farm steam traction engines of the past. It has more the look of a steam traction dragster and is beautifully finished in black and silver..

243—British MK IV Battle Tank, designed and built by Stephen J. King, FL 2009. L=17", W=9", H=7", Weight = 9.6 lb

The MK IV tank is probably the world’s first main battle tank. There were about 1200 made in many variations and they participated in virtually every British battle on the Western Front from 1917 until the end of the war. 

Mr. King constructed his model from 1/16 steel sheet and over 1200 steel rivets he made and set by hand. The mock up 6-cylinder engine houses an electric motor for operation and the tank is capable of travelling 1000 yards/hour by remote control. The scale Oakwood unditching beam stowed on top could be chained to the tracks and dragged around underneath the tank if it became disabled or ditched.

247—Bennett Water-Cooled Twin, designed and built by Paul Bennett, CA, 1969, Weight = 3 lb

Paul designed and built this opposed water-cooled twin in 1969 for his model boat. An article (with drawings) documenting his effort was published in Model Engineer magazine in January, 1972. It has a 1-inch bore with a 3/4 inch stroke, double throw crank and runs on gasoline with spark ignition. The engine requires manual lubrication of the rockers and pushrods, and oil must be added to the crankcase before operation. It is completely machined from aluminum and steel bar stock.

Courtesy of Margie Bennett

248—Kurz Compressor Engine, designed and built by Frank Kurz, CA, 1980s, Weight = 13 lb

Frank purchased a casting kit for a small compressor from Cole’s Power Models (no longer available) and converted it into this overhead cam, two-cylinder engine. It has a starter that doubles as a generator to power the small electric cooling fan. Frank had a knack for incorporating already existing components and unrelated mechanisms into his engines. This one is no different in that he utilized an iris diaphragm from a vintage camera for air control into the carburetor. It is a gas burner with spark ignition and has a 1.25 inch bore and stroke.

Courtesy of Dick Pretel

249—Vega 4-Cycle, Side-Valve Model Airplane Engine, by John Harbone, Birmingham, England, 1988-1995

Side-valve (flathead) engines have the valves located in the crankcase alongside the cylinder driven by the camshaft within the crankcase. This arrangement requires no tappet adjustment and offers an engine much more compact in size.      

All of the engines were machined in small quantities from aluminum and steel bar stock and were designed to burn methanol with castor oil mixed in for lubrication. Single cylinder variations included a .25, .30, and .91, and two sizes of opposed twins included a .50 and 1.8. Cutaway work by Paul Knapp.

250—Saito FA-120, 4-Cycle Cutaway Airplane Engine, Manufactured by Saito Engines of Japan, circa 2000

251—TMN 4-Cycle, Sleeve-Valve Cutaway Airplane Engine, built by Petr Chvatal, Czech Republic, circa 2000

After completing only 10 engines Petr produced a couple of the cutaways to demonstrate its operation. The cylinder liner has intake and exhaust ports cut into it. As the engine runs the liner rotates back and forth within the cylinder, which opens the intake and exhaust ports at the appropriate time in the combustion cycle. 

252—Indian Silver Arrow, Two-Cycle Outboard Boat Motor, designed and built by Ted Maciag and Profi ME, 2001

The Indian Silver Arrow was manufactured in 1930 by Indian Motorcycle Company of Springfield, Massachusetts. It was a two-cylinder, opposed, two-cycle, water-cooled engine that was rated at 10 HP. Ted Maciag and Profi ME worked together to produce this 1/3-scale model. Ted’s scale model is designed to burn methanol on glow ignition or spark ignition with a small capacitor discharge ignition system.

253—5-Cylinder Diesel Radial Engine, designed and built by Ronald Valentine, 2007

This is, perhaps, the smallest diesel radial engine in the world with a bore of only 5mm and a stroke of 5mm; total displacement of .49ccm. It is machined from aluminum bar stock, has a 3-piece crankshaft, a central reed valve that is geared, and each cylinder has two intake and two exhaust ports. It weighs about 2.5 ounces and will run 9300 revolutions per minute.

254—5-Cylinder Radial Enginedesigned and built by Roger Paul, 1978-1981

Mr. Paul used a few Morton M5 parts to construct three of these 5-cylinder radial engines. The first two were designed to run on methanol with castor oil mixed in for lubrication. Originally this one (serial #3) was designed to run on gasoline with a pressurized lubrication system but, apparently, he abandoned the idea before completing the engine. There is no sump or oil pump and the open rocker assemblies require manual lubrication before running the engine. Roger contributed several articles to Strictly IC magazine in the earliest issues through number 13.

255—4-Cylinder, Water-Cooled, Inline Boat Engine, builder unknown, date unknown

This 4-cycle water-cooled marine engine burns methanol or gasoline on glow ignition and sports an electric starter. With the exception of the commercial rockers arms, valves, and pistons, the engine was machined from aluminum and steel bar stock.

261—Miniature Supercharger, designed and built by Frank Kurz, CA, 1980

Frank designed this small turbocharger as an experiment. Superchargers are typically belt driven; however, turbochargers are driven by the exhaust gases produced from a running engine. As the engines speed increases the exhaust drives the turbo faster which creates more pressure to the cylinders, producing more horsepower. Frank machined it from aluminum and steel bar stock and he tested the turbo on a small engine, but the test results are not known.

Courtesy of Dick Pretel

262—Wall Wizard Water-Cooled, 4- Cycle Model Boat Engine, built by Dick Pretel, CA  

Mr. Pretel built this from a standard Wall Wizard casting kit, but modified the cylinders for water cooling instead of air. It is designed to burn gasoline on spark ignition and the crankcase holds oil for splash lubrication; rockers and push rod ends must be manually lubricated before each run. The intakes, exhaust pipes, flywheel, and numerous other parts are chrome plated for appearance and protection from water in marine applications.

264—Four Stroke (FS-91) Cutaway Model Airplane Engine, Manufactured by O.S. Engines of Japan, circa 1980's

The partial cutaway of the cylinder block exposes the piston, crankshaft and camshaft.

265—Six-Cylinder Experimental Rotary Engine, built by Bell Lab engineers and J.W. Kijowski, circa1965

Little is known about this “proof of concept” engine. The cylinders are arranged in two rows of three; the rows are staggered, and the front cylinders are about 60% larger than those in the rear. The two rows of holes in the outer housing may serve as induction and exhaust ports since the cylinders become exposed briefly as they rotate within the housing. It appears to be a 2-cycle engine that would burn methanol on glow ignition when completed. The cooling fan in front of the cylinders is machined from one piece of aluminum which was most likely performed on manual equipment in 1965—not an easy task.   

267—DK -17, 4-Cycle, Air-Cooled model Airplane Engine, designed and built by Dietmar Kolb, Germany, 2004

Dietmar Kolb’s model engine is designed to burn methanol on glow ignition. It has a bore of 13.5mm and a stroke of 11.4mm for a total displacement of 1.63cc. It will spin its 8 x 4 propeller up to 12,000 revolutions per minute.

268—Elto Cub, 1/3-Scale Outboard Boat Motor, by Ted Maciag, FL 2005 

The Elto Cub was manufactured in 1940 by the Evinrude Light Twin Outboard Co. It was a single-cylinder, water-cooled two-cycle with a bore of 1.125" and a stroke of 1". It weighed only 8 pounds, was only about 29 inches tall, produced one-half horsepower, and sold for $26.50 in 1940. Oil was mixed with the gasoline for lubrication.

Ted’s 1/3-scale model is a single-cylinder, water-cooled two-cycle with a bore of about .375" and stroke of about .330". It is about 9.5" tall and burns a gas/oil mixture on spark ignition. Denny Cole produced the 1/3-scale model of the dealer’s showroom display stand, and the spark plug is a Rimfire brand Viper Z3.

271—RCV 60 Sleeve-Valve Cutaway Engine, designed and built by RCV Engines, US

The cylinder liner rotates one time for every four strokes of the crankshaft. The port in the top portion of the liner is both an intake and exhaust port as it rotates through the combustion cycle. The liner is extended through a ball bearing in the front and is threaded for the propeller flange nut. Unlike most engines, the piston moves parallel to the propeller shaft.

274—Nano Bee, "World’s Smallest Diesel Engine," built by Chris Hans Valentine and Ronald Valentine, FL, 2011

Ronald Valentine’s goal is to build the smallest operational diesel engine in the world. His Nano Bee measures merely 7/8 of an inch long with a bore and stroke of only 2mm adding up to a total displacement of only .006cc or .00037 cu in. Under Ron’s guidance Chris Valentine exhibited great skill in his machining techniques as he produced this Nano Bee. He machined it completely from aluminum and steel bar stock with some tolerances held to one ten-thousandth of an inch (1/10,000" or 0.0001"). The engine will spin a 1-1/4 x 1 inch aluminum propeller up to 12,800 revolutions per minute.      

Courtesy of Chris Hans Valentine, Ronald Valentine

275—Sorrel Two-Cylinder Model Boat Engine, designed and built by Col. James Sorrel, CA, 1960’s

Col. James Sorrel utilized commercial piston and cylinder assemblies to produce his custom built two-cylinder racing engines. For boating applications his designs required removing the cylinder fins and seating the cylinder into machined aluminum crankcases for water cooling. It is not known how many model engines he produced, but most known examples are water-cooled and designed for model boats.

285—Single-Cylinder, 4-Cycle Air-Cooled Engine, builder unknown, date unknown

This model engine was almost completely machined from aluminum and steel bar stock. The cylinder is a modified 2-cycle cylinder that was converted to operate on this 4-cycle engine. The crankcase holds oil for lubrication, and the rockers require manual lubrication before operation. The cam is located externally just behind the flywheel, and it’s single lobe operates both the intake and exhaust valves. Included with the engine is a wooden box housing the battery and coil.

292—Elto Pal Outboard Boat Motor, built by Evinrude Light Twin Outboard Co., circa 1940 

In 1920 Ole Evinrude and his wife Bess re-entered the outboard motor business with their new company named Elto (Evinrude Light Twin Outboard Co.).  The Elto PAL was manufactured between 1937 and 1941; this single cylinder water-cooled motor is only 22 inches tall, weighs about 14 pounds, and produces about 1HP. The “Pal” was discontinued in 1941 and the “Elto” brand name was discontinued shortly after.

(This engine is not a scale model of a larger engine, it was actually produced at this small size.)

295—Miniature Spark Plugs, produced by Dale Detrich, OH, 2005

Dale uses Corian for the insulators in his miniature spark plugs. This modern-day material developed by DuPont is commonly used for kitchen countertops but due to its superb machining characteristics it has become popular for miniature engine builders who prefer to make their own spark plugs. The material’s limiting factors of thermal expansion and heat resistance (about 212F) make it suitable for engines with lower compression, lower temperature output, or higher performance engines with very short running sessions.

Due to popularity Dale made several styles available to model engine builders who prefer not to build their own spark plugs.

296—“Rimfire” Spark Plug Prototypes,  by Paul Knapp, AZ, 1993

The first prototype (left front) is the surface-gap plug responsible for the “Rimfire” name and logo. The logo was designed by the late Chuck Driscol of Mesa AZ. All of the prototypes and early test samples were fabricated from Macor machinable ceramic.

About Rimfire Spark Plugs...

Paul Knapp designed a new 1/4-32 miniature spark plug in 1993 for the model airplane industry. The “Rimfire” name was derived from his first design; a surface-gap racing plug that performed exceptionally well at high speed but was too small to retain enough heat at low speed to prevent fouling. After several electrode designs, public demand led to the typical single ground electrode so the builder could change the gap for different applications. In 1994, hand made samples were sent to many model racing enthusiasts in exchange for their reports on performance and/or failures. This valuable information was used to improve performance and reliability as Paul developed his new spark plug. By 1995, Rimfire spark plugs were used worldwide, and many were undergoing rigorous testing by several Aerospace companies such as XCOR Aerospace, Austrian Aerospace, German Aerospace, and NASA. The popularity among the model engine builders, the model airplane industry, and the need for different applications led to a variety of sizes and styles. 

Bill Carpenter of CH Electronics in Wyoming produced the most reliable miniature CDI (capacitor discharge ignition) system used by modelers worldwide. In 1993 Mr. Knapp bet Mr. Carpenter that he could produce the world’s best, and most reliable, miniature spark plug to accompany the CH ignition system. Today’s line of “Rimfire” miniature spark plugs is the result of that bet.

297—The Mini Tether Car Racer, produced by Scotty Hewitt, CA, circa 2000

Scotty custom fitted a Gasparin G-10 (CO2) motor into a Matchbox No. 52 race car to produce this tiny functional tether car. The instructions require you to secure the suction cup by moistening slightly and then attach the cable. The car should run between 10 and 20 laps depending on the gas charge, temperature, humidity, etc. Scotty notes, as a matter of interest, the car will have traveled over 90 feet in a 15 lap run.

In the second photo of the bottom of the car you can see the tiny silver and blue engine driving the front axel and the compressed air storage tank in front of the rear axel. The filler nozzle exits the rear of the car looking like an exhaust pipe.

298—Beginner’s Kits for New Machinists, sold by American Edelstaal circa 1975

American Edelstaal (distributers of the Unimat lathe in the USA) provided beginner’s kits designed to give the new users a project to help get started in machining. Mike Showah purchased the kits for that reason, but he quickly moved on to other (more complex) projects and never got back to these. The kits are relatively small; the truck is about 4.5 inches long and includes bits of metal stock, a few gears, hardware, and instructions. The steam powered truck included a small “Tonka Toy” van so you could build an authentic looking steam powered vehicle. Click or copy and paste the following link to see one of these rare little trucks in action: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QHk2ONOMMQU .

Courtesy of Mike Showah

Engines added to the display on October 3, 2011

97—Edwards Two-Cylinder Supercharged Opposed Model Aircraft Engine, designed by Forrest Edwards, 1990's.

Forrest Edwards built and flew scale model airplanes and engineered miniature engines. He wanted to produce a small, lightweight and powerful miniature engine for the large scale model aircraft racing circuit. To maximize the horsepower Edwards equipped his twin-cylinder engine with his own custom-engineered supercharger, a device for raising the pressure in an internal combustion engine.

This one-of-a-kind prototype runs on unleaded gasoline with spark ignition and a dry sump lubrication system. With its 1-3/4" bore and 1-1/4" stroke the supercharged twin produces approximately 15 horsepower at 7500 RPM using a 24-16 propeller.

Courtesy of Forrest Edwards

244, 245, 246—Valentine Four-Cycle Model Airplane Engine Display, designed and built by Ronald Valentine, FL 1980s

In the 1980s Ronald, known for his miniature diesel engines, designed and built three miniature four-cycle model airplane engines. Two are air-cooled  single-cylinder model aircraft engines and one is a 5-cylinder radial engine measuring only 3.25 inches in diameter. All were designed to burn methanol on glow ignition and all required special (custom made) glow plugs that Ronald designed and fabricated. These are the only four-cycle model engines built by Mr. Valentine.

283—Seidel Prototype Radial Engine, by Wolfgang Seidel, Germany, early 1980's

Wolfgang Seidel designed and built several custom radial engine. The ST540, ST770 and ST996 were among the smaller series of radial engines that were used in one-fifth scale and one-fourth-scale model aircraft. These engines varied in size from about 8 inches to 11 inches in diameter.

This pre-production model is one of his first prototypes intended to introduce his engines at trade fairs and model airplane shows and exhibitions. It is approximately 40cc (2.43 cubic inches) and closely resembles his first production engine; the small ST525 radial engine. It burns methanol on glow ignition and the rocker assemblies were manually lubricate before operation.

 

286, 287, 288—"Soda Gas" (CO2) Engines, by Stefan Gasparin, Czech Republic, 1972

Mr. Gasparin began building CO2 engines in 1972. He designed and built over 60 variations from 1 through 18 cylinders including single-cylinder, inline, opposed flat, V, rotary and radial configurations. He was registered in the Guinness Book of World Records in 1989 for producing the world's smallest CO2 engine.

(Photo 1) All three engines are on custom wood stands with a pressure tank mounted to the base.

(Photo 2) The 3-cylinder G160TS has a bore of 7mm and a stroke of  4.2mm and weighs 33 grams.

(Photo 3) The 9-cylinder G24NR is a rotary rather than a radial engine. That means that the crankshaft is fixed to the airplane's firewall and the entire engine rotates around the crankshaft, with the cylinders spinning at the same rate as the propeller. This was a common design for early aircraft in WWI. The bore on each cylinder of this engine is 3.175mm and stroke is 3mm. It weighs just 34.5 grams.

(Photo 4) The G24NN two-row 18-cylinder radial engine features a bore in each cylinder of 3.175mm and the stroke is 3mm. It weights 53 grams. Only 19 of these engines were built before the company was closed in 2006. This one, #20 was custom built by Mr. Gasparin just for Paul Knapp's Miniature Engineering Museum in 2011.

More on Gasparin CO2 engines can be found on his web site at www.gasparin.cz.

289—Gasparin CO2 Micro Flyer with G2.6 World's Smallest CO2 Engine, by Stefan Gasparin, Czech Republic, 1972

The micro flyer has a wingspan of just 6.3 inches and weighs a total of 3.5 grams with engine. The outside diameter of the cylinder measures .118" and the entire engine with its propeller weighs merely 1 gram. This is the engine listed in the Guinness Book of World's Records as the smallest CO2 engine in the world. It is his G2.6 single-cylinder with a bore of 1.6mm (.063 in.) and a stroke of 1.3mm (.051 in.) or .0031 cubic inches displacement. The engine weighs only 1 gram and turns its 2.36" propeller up to 5000 RPM. It was designed to power micro free-flight airplanes like the small high-wing balsa and tissue model shown here. This airplane was designed for indoor flying but can be flown outdoors on a very calm day. It is one of three designs that were offered.

290—"Stinger 609" Supercharged V8, built by Gary Conley, Illinois, 2011 (one of 12 built)

Gary worked for years designing the patterns to build a scale Dodge Viper V-10 engine. A fire at the foundry destroyed all the patterns for his previous 427 V8 and the Viper project. After much despair, Gary was able to recover part of the pattern for the Viper block, shorten it to 8 cylinders and begin work on a new engine. After several more years more work, Gary was able to introduce the Stinger 609. It displaces 6.09 cubic inches or almost 100 cc and is the culmination of almost 30 years of knowledge gained in the designing and construction of model engines. The new Stinger possesses no parts used in prior V-8 engines. The bore is 1.00", with a .970" stroke. It weighs about 11.25 pounds and measures approximately 14" long (from the front timing belt to the end of the transmission), 6" wide and 8-1/4" tall. The supercharged version shown here is about 10" tall. Among the numerous innovative features like large oval shaped intake ports, "D" shaped exhaust ports, and investment cast parts, two bold attributes stand tall: the dry sump pressurized oiling system and a full ignition system. The engine even has a user replaceable oil filter and includes a built-in electric starter as standard equipment.

Video of the engine running can be seen at Gary's web site at www.conleyprecision.com.

291—Miniature of New York Radial Engine, built by Miniature Aircraft Corporation of New York, circa 1940

Little is known about the Miniature Aircraft Corporation of New York. In 1931 owner Ken Pouch advertised a compressed air four-cylinder radial engine (named “Special”) made from aluminum alloy with brass heads. He also introduced a six- and eight-cylinder compressed air radial in the same year. By 1937 he produced two small single-cylinder gas model airplane engines named the Whirlwind and Whirlwind Jr.; however, no known examples exist. 1940 appears to be his last year in business with two more single-cylinder engines he dubbed the Gas Motor and Midget. Tim Dannels notes in his American Model Engine Encyclopedia, “One can only speculate how this radial came into being. Perhaps they decided to stop trying to produce a line of engines and those parts were left over or were never intended for production; maybe it was just a lark by whoever was in charge of the project.”

300—Novi V8 1/4 Scale Sprint Car, designed and built by Jim Riggle, ND, mid 1980s. L = 37", W = 16", H = 12"

Jim used this sprint car as the test platform for his new model of the NOVI V8 engine. He made the patterns and molds for the castings and machined all of the parts to make it operational; his ultimate goal was to eventually design and develop a fully functional 1/4-scale “Indy” NOVI powered race car. The engine is a water-cooled DOHC (Dual Over Head Cam) 4-cycle with a one-inch bore and stroke. It sports a peristaltic pressure and scavenge pump for pressurized dry-sump lubrication, two peristaltic fuel pumps, a water pump, eight downdraft butterfly-type carburetors with velocity stacks, and it is designed to burn methanol on electronic spark ignition. The serpentine timing belt insures positive drive to all accessories and pumps. The car is set up for radio control and it incorporates a Columbia type quick-change differential rear end.   

Courtesy of Ed Miller

 

The real thing...The full-scale versions of these cars normally run on 1/4 and 1/2 mile dirt ovals and can turn lap times in the 14-15-second range for a 1/2 mile track. For example, the lap record at Knoxville raceway on the 1/2 mile oval is in 14.07 seconds. That is a lap average of almost 128 MPH on dirt, much of which is done sliding totally sideways with full-lock oversteer! Speeds on the straightaway can top 140 MPH. The power-to-weight ratio with 650 HP in a 1400 pound car is similar to that of a Formula 1 car.

Engines added November 18, 2011

02P—Edwards 5-Cylinder Radial Model-Aircraft Engine, designed and built by Forest Edwards, early 1980s, L=12". W=12", H=13", Weight = 11 lb-12 oz

Forest Edwards built and flew scale-model airplanes and engineered miniature engines.  He won numerous awards for his scale airplanes, engines and flying skills.

In the early 1980s, Edwards designed and developed this 5-cylinder radial engine to power his 1/4-scale Fleet model airplane, based on the 1930 Fleet Biplane.  He received many requests to manufacture the engine, so between 1982 and 1994, Edwards produced 30 engines.  Many were installed into model airplanes and some are still being flown today.

The 5-cylinder radial burns regular gasoline, incorporates a dry-sump lubrication system and produces more than six horsepower.  In his last few engines, Edwards added a centrifugal advance in the distributor, and a crankshaft-driven supercharger for maximum performance.  Edwards’ engines are completely machined from 7075 aircraft-grade aluminum and are perhaps the most reliable model radial engines built to date.

(This engine differs from the #02 in that the cylinders are black on this version.)

61—Micro Cirrus 4-Cylinder Inline Engine, (water cooled) designed by Merritt Zimmerman, 1974, 1/12-scale models built in Ukraine, 2001 and 2003, L=5", W=6", H=4"

Two variations of the model Cirrus engine are these micro engines from Ukraine.  They run on methanol with glow ignition and are among the smallest multi-cylinder 4-cycle engines in the world.  The custom glow plugs are only a 5mm hex with a 3.5mm thread.  The engines are less than 4 inches long and have a mere .5cc displacement in each cylinder, making the 4-cylinder only 2cc and the V8 only 4cc total displacement.  Initial test results proved these micro engines would spin their 7- and 8-inch propellers to 13,000 revolutions per minute.

Only 25 of the 1/12-scale 4-cylinder air-cooled engines were produced in 2001 and another 25 of a water-cooled version.  In 2003, the remaining parts for the 4-cylinder engines were used to manufacture less than a half dozen each of the air-cooled and water-cooled V8 engines.

88—Schillings 3- Cylinder (FAN) Engine, designed and built by Hubert Schillings, Germany, circa 1975, L=8", W=9", H=6", Weight = 5.0 lb

Hubert Schillings designed several miniature engines from 1970 to 1980.  Configurations vary from 1-cylinder aircraft engines to 2-, 3-, 4-, 6- and 8-cylinder inline and V-type engines for both aircraft and automobiles.  Most of his engines were machined from aluminum bar stock, although a few were machined from magnesium.

The 3-cylinder (fan-configuration) Dual-Over-Head-Cam (DOHC) engine has all cylinders above the center line, but uses a master rod and 2 articulating rods like those used in a radial engine. Each cylinder has two valves (one for intake and one for exhaust) and the camshafts are belt driven 1:2 off of the crankshaft. Two camshafts operate the valves in each cylinder head.  One camshaft operates the intake valves and the other the exhaust valves, thus “dual overhead cams.”

Typically, Schillings used belts to drive the cams rather than gears and rarely enclosed the belt-drive into a housing. It is believed that less than 6 of these 3-cylinder (Fan) type engines were fabricated by Huber Schillings.

89—Schillings V-Twin DOHC Engine, designed and built by Hubert Schillings, Germany, circa 1975, L=8", W=9", H=6"

Hubert Schillings designed several miniature engines from 1970 to 1980.  Configurations vary from 1-cylinder aircraft engines to 2-, 3-, 4-, 6- and 8-cylinder inline and V-type engines for both aircraft and automobiles.  Most of his engines were machined from aluminum bar stock. The crankcase on this two-cylinder is one of only a few that he machined from magnesium.

The 2-cylinder “V” Dual-Over-Head-Cam (DOHC) has cylinders 90 degrees apart and in line with the crankshaft similar to a V6 or V8 configuration. Each cylinder has two valves (one for intake and one for exhaust) and the camshafts are belt driven 1:2 off of the crankshaft. Two camshafts operate the valves.  One camshaft operates the intake valves and the other the exhaust valves, thus “dual overhead cams.

111—Mike GR6-120 Six-Cylinder Two-Cycle Radial Model Airplane Engine, designed and built by Mike Goldowsky, early 1990s, L=7", W=8", H=9", Weight = 6 lb-6oz

In the early 90’s Mike Goldowsky designed this 6-cylinder 2-cycle engine in an attempt to make a powerful radial engine that would be economically attractive to the average modeler. His goal was to retail it for less than $1000, so he purchased 6 K&B (Lake Havasu, Arizona) single-cylinder airplane engines and mounted them into a machined housing to produce the radial appearance. Each engine has a gear that engages the drive-gear for the propeller shaft. Goldowsky developed a unique linkage that synchronizes the carburetors to operate from one location.

113—Micro Cirrus V8 Engine, (water cooled) designed by Merritt Zimmerman, 1974, 1/12-scale models built in Ukraine, 2001 and 2003, L=6", W=3", H=7"

Two variations of the model Cirrus engine are these micro engines from Ukraine.  They run on methanol with glow ignition and are among the smallest multi-cylinder 4-cycle engines in the world.  The custom glow plugs are only a 5mm hex with a 3.5mm thread.  The engines are less than 4 inches long and have a mere .5cc displacement in each cylinder, making the 4-cylinder only 2cc and the V8 only 4cc total displacement.  Initial test results proved these micro engines would spin their 7- and 8-inch propellers to 13,000 revolutions per minute.

Only 25 of the 1/12-scale 4-cylinder air-cooled engines were produced in 2001 and another 25 of a water-cooled version.  In 2003, the remaining parts for the 4-cylinder engines were used to manufacture less than a half dozen each of the air-cooled and water-cooled V8 engines.

227—Feeney Single-Cylinder, Four-Cycle, Model Engine, castings designed by Art DeKalb, Builder Unknown, Weight = 1 lb

301—"Skylark" Two-Cycle Marine Engine, designed and built by Gerald Smith, UK, 1980s 

Gerald Smith manufactured over 300 engines from 1922 to the mid 1980s. Of the 14 10cc Skylarks he built only 3 were water-cooled for marine applications. He designed and produced his own magneto, castings, spark plugs, carburetors, and timers, and then furnace enameled the parts for the finishing touches. This two-stroke engine burns gasoline on spark ignition.

301—"Magpie" Two-Cycle Marine Engine, designed and built by Gerald Smith, UK, circa 1946-1949 

Among the many engines produced by Gerald Smith is this ducted fan air-cooled marine engine called the Magpie. It is a 15cc spark ignition engine developed for model boats. It was also available in upright or inverted cylinder without the fan for use in model airplanes. He produced approximately 35 Magpies between 1946 and 1949; most were model airplane engines, but a few were ducted fan cooled and two were water-cooled for boating applications.

Engines Added October 20, 2012

306—Canon Kit, 13th Century navy Mount, distributed by American Edelstaal (L=7", W=5")

American Edelstaal, distributors of the Unimat lathe, provided beginner's kits designed to give the new lathe user simple projects to help get started in machining. Mike Showah purchased this kit for that reason, and, when finished with this one quickly moved on to other more complex projects. The kits provided all the materials and drawings necessary to finish the project. Include is the original kit box.

Courtesy of Mike Showah

314—Gasparin G63-V12 12-cylinder Soda Gas (CO2) Engine, designed and built by Stefan Gasparin, Czech Republic, 2012

The tank under the engine receives a charge of CO2, which is liquid at ambient temperature at a vapor pressure of about 850 PSI. When the engine is started, the pressure in the tank drops, causing the CO2 to boil and supply more gas to the engine. The inlet valve is a steel ball sealed by CO2 pressure in a nylon seat in the cylinder head. Each piston has a peg located in the center on top that lifts the ball as the piston reaches top dead center. This allows the CO2 gas to expand into the cylinder, driving the piston back down. The charge exhausts through a series of holes at the bottom of the cylinder.

318—Royer Model Airplane Engine, manufactured by Royer Motors, Pasadena, CA, 1932 (L-7", H=7")

The engine has a .785 cu. in. displacement and consists of a sand cast crankcase, front cover and spoke-fin head. It has side port induction with a large poppet valve type carburetor, cast exhaust pipe, timer assembly and a polished aluminum propeller that is keyed to the shaft. It was designed to burn gas or methanol on spark ignition and has a red enameled tank attached to the rear head screw.

319—GIL Model Airplane Engine, manufactured by GIL Manufacturing, Chicago, IL, 1922 (L=9")

The GIL is a 1.18 cu. in. two-cycle model airplane engine produced from 1922 to 1933 by GIL Manufacturing in Chicago. Considered large in its day, it was produced in many variations and crankshaft lengths. The engine was supplied with an aluminum propeller that was secured to the crankshaft with a taper pin. The GIL is considered by many to be the first commercially available model airplane engine in the United States.

320—Model Craftsman 4-cycle Airplane Engine, designer unknown, builder unknown, 1938 (L=4", H=5", W=3")

It is possible the name of this engine was acquired from drawings or a construction article from an early publication named Model Craftsman and castings may have been available as well. This engine has a cast aluminum crankcase and cam box with a machined cast iron cylinder and head. It has spark ignition with an adjustable timer in the front and an unusual rocker arm assembly. Oil mixed in with the fuel lubricated the internal parts, but the rocker arm assembly must be manually lubricated before operation.

331—Motorcycle made from watch parts, designed and  built by Dmitriy Khristenko, Florida, 2011 (L=6", W=3", H=3.5")

Dmitriy Khristenko recycles parts from old wrist watches, pocket watches and eye glasses to produce miniature motorcycles, quads, bicycles and tricycles. Wristbands become tires, fenders seats and even frames while items like crystals become windshields and headlight lenses. Mr. Khristenko organizes components from several similar timepieces into pairs before beginning construction. His techniques for fabrication include several types of glue to bond the components together.

332—Quatrocycle made from watch parts, designed and  built by Dmitriy Khristenko, Florida, 2011 (L=5.5", W=2.4", H=2.5")

Among the insects and other items designed and fabricated from watch parts is this Quatrocycle (Quad) that Dmitriy assembled. He uses several types of bonding compounds to hold the array of components together to produce his miniature masterpieces. Wristbands are used as tires and seats while watch faces become wheels and intricate internal gears and parts make up details for the engine and dashboard. Obviously, this and the above motorcycle are not running engines, but they are great great conversation pieces that use recycled parts to make up tiny works of art.

333

334

335

336

337

338

339

333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338 and 339—Custom built engines by Fred Kunze

Throughout Fred's engineering career in the aviation industry he spent much of his free time in the design, development and production of model airplane engines. The best known model engine he designed was his K-35 that he first produced in 1976. There was great interest in his K-35 and the demand grew rapidly, which lead him to manufacturing a total of 39 engines. The last five have finned heads instead of solid aluminum heads. He made the patterns for casting the crankcases, rear cover and timer assemblies and machined everything else from solid bar stock.

All of the K-35s had two exhaust ports with both front and rear bypasses. All were 2-cycle and designed to burn methanol and castor oil on spark ignition.

Between the design and development of  new engines he utilized his machine time to reproduce some of his old-time favorites. These included the Mighty Midget, Elf, Baby Cyclone and Husky Jr., all of which were produced in the earlier days of model aviation. Fred also designed and built a couple of two-stroke twins, one with side-port induction (displayed here) and one with rotary valve induction. His engineering and machining skills lead him to the construction of a few four-cycle, single-cylinder engines an eventually a 5-cylinder radial engine. Other than the reproduction engines and his K-35's his custom made engines were machine from bar stock with no castings used.

340—Midget Gas Engine, builder unknown, date unknown (L=9", W=6", H=8.5")

Construction articles for this engine were published in Popular Mechanics Shop Notes (Volume XXXIV) in 1938. The first step was to produce wood patterns from the plans provided and either make your own castings or take the patterns to a foundry to have them make the castings. Once the castings were in hand, mechanical drawings would allow the builder to machine the engine parts to completion. This engine was produced from cast iron castings. It has a bore and stroke of 1.250, burns gasoline and the crankcase holds oil for splash lubrication. The rocker arms must be lubricated before operation. The engine was rated at 1/6 horsepower at maximum speed, but the maximum rpm was not specified.

Courtesy of Kelly and Terry Grant, WY

341—Gypsy Major MK I, Designed and built by Reinhold Krieger, Germany, 2002 (L=14", W=8", H=10")

This 1/3 scale inverted inline 4-cylinder Gypsy Major has a 1.3 inch bore and a 1.6 inch stroke for a total displacement of 8.5 cubic inches. It sports dual electronic ignition with mechanically coupled ignition timing, a geared fuel pump, geared oil pump and a butterfly type carburetor. It spins its 26 x 16 propeller clockwise (viewed from the front) from 900 to 4000 RPM. The full-size de Havilland Gipsy Major Mk I powered the DH82 Tiger Moth biplane.

344—Pratt & Whitney 28-cylinder, 4-row Radial Engine, designed and buit by Dennis Fadden, Canada, 1980's (L=17", W=17, H=17")

The model was designed to operate on gasoline and spark ignition and sports a 12-inch, 3-blade adjustable pitch propeller. Dennis began the project in the mid-1980's but moved on to other projects and never got back to this one. The engine (without cylinder heads) measure 6 inches in diameter and is 21 inches long including the propeller hub. The crankshaft is assembled inside and includes gears for distributors and a 3-to-1 planetary gear set driving the propeller. The rear case houses two oil pumps for dry sump lubrication and a centrifugal supercharger to increase pressure to the cylinders.

The full-size engine designated R-4360 (4360 cubic inches) Wasp Major is compose of four rows of seven-cylinder radial engines. Each row is staggered to assist the distribution of cool air to the rear rows of cylinders during operation. Sheet metal shrouds encased the heads and cylinders to direct the flow of air around and through the rows of cylinders. The engine was dubbed the "Corn Cob" due to its appearance. It was used in such aircraft as the Consolidated B-37, Boeing Stratocruiser, B-50, 377, Spruce Goose and the Super Corsair.

Courtesy of Dennis Fadden

351—Panther Pup, designed by Bill Reichart, built by Steve Myers, CA, Circa 2000 (L=15", W=22", H=12")

The engine is an air-cooled, four-cylinder, four-cycle designed to burn gasoline on spark ignition. Oil is added to the crankcase for splash lubrication but the external rocker arm assemblies require manual lubrication before operation. it is comprised of four bronze castings with all other components machined from brass, steel and aluminum bar stock. It has a bore of 1 inch and a stroke of 7/8 inch, measure 7 inches wide by 12 inches long and weighs 18 pounds.

Steve's showpiece indludes an array of duplicate parts neatly displayed in a drawer beneath the engine. His intent was not to run the engine, but rather to exhibit the effort it took to produce such a showpiece. The quality of his machining and the design and execution of the display stand is unparalleled and portray perfection at its highest level.

Courtesy of Mayra R. Myers

352—Neptune Outboard Boat Motor, Manufactured by Muncie Gear Works, Muncie, IN, 1954

Muncie Gear Works began manufacturing automobile and truck transmissions in 1910 and entered the outboard motor arena in 1930. This 1.7 HP model AA1 is a water-cooled, two-cycle gas burner that measure barely 23 inches tall. The original A1 line of motors began in 1947, but production ceased in 1952 because the company was heavily involved in military parts production during the Korean War. When outboard motor production restarted in 1954, some of the A1 leftovers and only a few AA1 motors were made and sold.

Engines Added 9/21/13

347—Single Cylinder OHC Air-Cooled Demonstration Engine, Germany, 1990s (L=8", W=16", H=8", Wt=8 oz)

The kit was manufactured by ELWE Educational Products and sold to institutions and schools to be assembled in the classroom. It was designed to teach the fundamentals of electronics, mechanics, and operation of the internal combustion engine. The kit was supplied with everything necessary (except 12V battery) to complete the engine for running demonstrations. It is equipped with timing marks on the flywheel and an electronic ignition and a  sensor that replaces the points.   

358—JEMMA 7 Cylinder Radial Engine, built by Bob Haagenson, CA, (L=13", W=9", H=10", Wt=11 lb 6 oz on base)

Bob built about fifty model engines ranging from single cylinder (hit and miss) stationary engines to four, six, and eight cylinder racing engines and eventually a Rolls Royce V12 Merlin aircraft engine. All were designed and built to burn gasoline on spark ignition and several were built from his personal designs.

He fabricated the JEMMA from plans published in Strictly IC magazine. It measures about 8 inches in diameter, has a bore of .750 and stroke of .800, and burns a gas/oil mixture on electronic spark ignition. The upper end requires manual lubrication before operation.

361—Kalfus Designed 30cc (.18ci) Tether Boat Engine, designed and built by Ed Kalfus, MI circa 1940 (L=9", W=4.5", H=7", Wt=4 lb 6 oz)

Ed Kalfus, Barney Kiewicz, F. Schneider, and Joe Sparr were the main organizers of the International Model Power Boat Association in 1949; an organization still in existence today. Ed was a pioneer in model boat racing and in the 1950’s was one of the first tether boat racers to break 100 miles per hour with his custom built engines and tether boats. He switched to radio-control boats in the 60’s and became the first to break 60 miles per hour in RC boats and he held the F Hydro record for several years. This 30cc air-cooled engine burns methanol on glow ignition and incorporates a cylinder that can be rotated and locked in several positions up to 90 degrees right or left of center.   

374—15cc (.90ci) Radio Control Boat Engin , designed and built by Ed Kalfus, MI, 1960s (L=6.5", W=6", H=5", Wt=2 lb 4 oz)

Ed began racing tether boats in 1931 and radio controlled boats in 1960. It is not known how many engines he built but, in all those years, he admitted he never purchased an engine. This particular engine is one of four that he built in the early 60s for his radio controlled boats. He was the first RC boat racer to hit 60 miles an hour and held the F Hydro record for several years. The engine burns Ed’s special blend of 60% nitro mixed with the methanol and castor oil on glow ignition and utilizes sub-piston porting for increased power. Mr. Kalfus was the first person to be inducted into the International Model Power Boat Association’s Hall of Fame.   

375—10cc (.60ci) Tether Boat Engine, designed and built by Ed Kalfus, MI, 1950s (L=5", W=3.5", H=5.5", Wt=1 lb 10 oz) 

The engine is one of many custom engines built by Ed Kalfus between 1931 and the late 50s. The small brass carburetor in the back is set to run the engine at low speed for startup and last-minute checks on the adjustments and operation. It requires the throttle of the front carburetor to be completely closed during this process. Once everything is checked and tuned for the race Ed would simply open the throttle on the front carburetor to full open and release the boat. It required the front carburetor to be set to compensate for the additional intake of the rear carburetor while running at full throttle. 

376—Associated Hired Man, Paul Briesch Castings, built by Herb Hodapp, MN, 2000 (L=19", W=8", H=9", Wt=17 lb 12oz)   

Herb Hodapp was best known for the reproduction model engine (Champion) spark plugs he produced since the days the original manufacturer’s ceased production. Less known is that he was an engine builder as well. In the early 2000s he produced a half dozen these ¼-scale Hired Man stationary engines from Paul Briesch castings. It has a bore of 7/8 inch and stroke of 1inch, burns gasoline (or Coleman) on spark ignition, and there are numerous oilers and grease cups strategically located for proper lubrication.  

Courtesy of Bud Brautlecht

377-380—Schroeder Display of Multi-Cylinder Cox Engines, designed and built by Roger Schroeder (4-engine display—L=4", W=7", H=8.5", Wt=1 lb 10 oz)

Roger Schroeder was well known for his innovative multi-cylinder engines that utilized Cox .020 and .049 engine parts. Typically his single piece crankshafts were constructed from several pieces fused together. Then he modified the connecting rod by cutting a slit in the end so the rod could be snapped onto the crankshaft journals. Once the crankshaft was assembled inside the crankcase he snapped the rods onto the journals and then screwed the cylinders on. Roger wrote many articles for Tim and Betty Dannels “Engine Collectors Journal” and Robert and Frances Washburn’s “Strictly IC” magazine.

393—Gasparin Flat Four CO2 Airplane Engine, date unknown

Also called a "Soda Gas Engine," the tank under the engine in this case receives a charge of CO2, which is liquid at ambient temperature at a vapor pressure of about 850 PSI. When the engine is started, the pressure in the tank drops, causing the CO2 to boil and supply more gas to the engine. The inlet valve is a steel ball sealed by CO2 pressure in a nylon seat in the cylinder head. Each piston has a peg located in the center on top that lifts the ball as the piston reaches top dead center. This allows the CO2 gas to expand into the cylinder, driving the piston back down. The charge exhausts through a series of holes at the bottom of the cylinder.

horizontal rule

RETURN TO MUSEUM HOME PAGE

Copyright 2013, The Joe Martin Foundation for Exceptional Craftsmanship. All rights reserved.
 No part of this web site, including the text, photos or illustrations, may be reproduced or transmitted in any other form or by any means (electronic, photocopying, recording or otherwise) for commercial use without the prior written permission of The Joe Martin Foundation. Reproduction or reuse for educational and non-commercial use is permitted.